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Ch. 6 - Memory (2).pdf

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Judith Shedden

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PNB  2XA3   Chapter  6:  Memory  (2)     What  is  an  effective  cue?   • Principles  of  mnemonics   1) Provide  a  structure   2) Create  a  durable  record  (i.e.  visual  images)   3) Guide  retrieval  by  providing  effective  cues   • What  makes  a  cue  effective?   o Associative  strength   o State-­‐dependent  or  context-­‐dependent  learning   o Encoding  specificity     Retrieval:  Recall  vs.  Recognition   • Recall:  Requires  that  you  generate  an  answer.  Followed  by  a  decision   –  is  the  answer  correct?  (i.e.  Essay  exam,  free   recall)   • Recognition:  Does  not  require  generation .  Does  require  a  decision  –  is  the  answer  correct?  (i.e.  Looking  at  answer,   recognize  it  b/c  the  answer  triggers  a  cue )     Associative  Strength   • Build  up  associative  strength  by  frequency  of  occurrence,  or  distinctiveness  of  relation   o Due  to  frequency  of  association   o Cat  is  strongly  associated  with  meow,  and  more  weakly  associated  with  milk   • Spreading  activation:  A  node  (idea)  is  activated,  activating  other  nodes.  Activation  will  reach  threshold,  at  which   point  nodes  fire  (think  neurons).   • Participants  given  word  pairs  to  study  (i.e.  yellow  boot,  meow  cat).  Then  1  member  of  the  pair  is  presented  as  the   cue  to  help  recall  the  other  member  of  the  pair .   o Strongly  associated  cues  are  more  effective  than  weakly  associated   cues   § Meow  is  better  than  milk  as  a  cue  for  cat   § Milk  might  elicit  baby,  coffee,  cookies,  cheerios     State-­‐dependent  Learning   • The  importance  of  the  perspective  at  time  of  encoding  and  at  time  of  retrieval   o Location  (i.e.  under  water  vs.  on  land)   o Physiology  (i.e.  intoxicated  vs.  sober)   o Mood  (i.e.  happy  vs.  sad)   o Environment  (visual,  auditory,  olfactory…)   • The  context  becomes  incorporated  with  the  associations  and  thus  the  path  of  retrieval     Encoding  Specificity:  Interactions  b/w  encoding  &  retrieval  operations   • What  you  encode  is  specific   –  not  just  the  physical  stimulus  as  it  was  encountered,  but  the  stimulus  together  with  its   context.   • Semantic  =  deeper  level  of  processing;   Phonemic  =  do  they  rhyme?   • Comparing  semantic  and  phonemic  cues  (Fisher  &  Craik  1977)   o Make  many  judgments  about  phrases  and  words   § Semantic  =  deeper  level  of  processing,  creating   associations   phrase:   associated  with  sleet   word:   hail  (correct  answer  is  yes)   § Phonemic  =  lower  level  processing,  does  it  rhyme?   phrase:   rhymes  with  pail   word:   hail  (correct  answer  is  yes)   o Recall  words  based  on  retrieval  cues   § Possible  cues  for  “hail”  (semantic  condition)   associated  with  sleet  (identical  to  study  context)   associated  with  snow  (similar  context)   rhymes  with  bail  (different  context   § Possible  cues  for  “hail”  (phonemic  condition)     rhymes  with  pail  (identical  to  study  context   rhymes  with  bail  (similar  context)   associated  with  sleet  (different  context)         Encoding  Specificity:  Learning  includes  the  items  AND  context   • There  is  a  ‘specificity’  at  the  encoding  stage   o A  change  in  context  affects   the  ability  to  recall   • Retrieve  info  by  thinking  about  the  item   and  the  context   • Smith  1979   o Learning  and  testing  in  diff  rooms   o Participants  who  were  tested  in  a  diff  room  but  urged  to  think  about  the  learning  room  did  just  as  well  as   those  who  were  testing  in  the  learning  room     Specificity  of  Processing:  What  is  crucial  for  the  task?   • Perceptual  fluency  –  If  you  have  perceived  the  stimulus,  fluency  develops  for  perceiving  the  stimulus   o Does  not  lead  to  conceptual  fluency   o Specific  to  stimulus  details  (auditory,  visual…)   • Conceptual  fluency  –  If  you  have  thought  about  the  meaning,  fluency  develops  for  thinking  about  the  meaning   o Does  not  lead  to  perceptual  fluency   o Specific  to  perspective  taken     Perceptual  Specificity   • Perceptual  memories  are  stimulus -­‐specific   o Practice  with  auditory  does  not  prime  visual   o Practice  with  a  subset  of  the  letters  of  a  word  doesn’t  prime  recognition  given  diff  letters     § Ex.  Word  fragmentation  completion   Having  completed  the  fragment:     _O_N_T_O_   Helps  to  complete:     _O_N_T_O_   But  NOT  to  complete:   C_G_I_I_N   § Even  physical  diffs  like  font  can  be  crucial   • The  fluency  is  very  specific  to  the  physical  details  of  the  stimulus.   Conceptual  Specificity   • Lexical-­‐decision  task   o Is  this  letter  string  an  English  word?   o In  the  following  examples,  evaluate  the  LAST  word  in  the  sentence   • Letter  string  shown  in  context:   o “The  boy  took  the  money  he  earned  from  the  paper  route  to  the   bink”  (no,  not  a  word)   “The  boy  took  the  money  he  earned  from  the  paper  route  to  the   bank”  (yes,  that’s  a  word)   • Repeat  letter  string;  same  context:  strong  repetition  priming  occurred   o “The  boy  took  the  money  he  earned  from  the  paper  route  to  the   bank”   • Repeat  letter  string;  diff  context  but  same  meaning:   mild  repetition  priming   o “She  realized  she  needed  cash  and  she  headed  for  the   bank”   • Repeat  letter  string;  diff  context  AND  diff  meaning:   very  little  repetition  priming   o “She  jumped  into  the  river  and  she  swam  to  the  opposite   bank”     Transfer-­‐appropriate  Processing   • In  the  terms  we  have  been  talking  about   o Perceptual  skill:  relevant  to  perceptual  tasks   o Conceptual  skill:  relevant  to  conceptual  tasks   • How  specific  is  practic e  within  those  skill  categories?  Transfer-­‐appropriate  processing  refers  to  a  finer  grain   specificity   o A  particular  perceptual  skill:  relevant  to  that   particular  perceptual  skill   o A  particular  conceptual  skill:  relevant  to  that   particular  conceptual  skill   • Factual  recall  vs.  problem  solving  perspective   o I  can  tell  you  the  score  of  any  baseball  game  before  the  game  starts.  What  is  my  secret?     o A  man  living  in  a  small  town  married  20  diff  women  in  the  same  town.  All  are  still  living,  and  he  has  never   divorced  one  of  them.  Yet  he  has  broken  no  law.  Can  you  explain?   • Fact  based  perspective:   o 36%  correct  at  solving  problems  (rate  t he  truthfulness  of  the  statements)   o If  you  had  previously  rated  the  following:   § Before  it  starts,  the  score  of  any  baseball  game  is  0  to  0   § A  minister  marries  several  people  each  week.   • Problem  solving  perspective:   o 56%  correct  at  solving  problem   o If  you  had  rated  the  following:   § The  score  of  any  baseball  game  is  0  to  0  (pause)  BEFORE  the  game  starts   § It  is  possible  to  marry  several  people  each  week  (pause)  IF  one  is  a  minister     Memory  Dichotomies   • Working/Long-­‐term   • Recognition/Recall   • Perceptual/Con
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