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Ch. 10 - Visual Knowledge.pdf

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Judith Shedden

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PNB  2XA3   Chapter  10:  Visual  Knowledge     Imagery   • Other  kinds  of  “non-­‐verbal”  knowledge  (odours,  sounds,  movement,  pain,  visual,  spatial  texture,  etc .)   • Imagery  (imagine,  imagination,  stimulation  of  experience,  empathy )   • Most  work  has  been  done  on  visual  modality   • A  man  looking  at  a  photograph  says:  Brothers  &  sisters  have  I  none;  that  man’s  father  is  my  father’ s  son   Who  is  the  man  in  the  photograph?   à  Imagery  of  a  family  tree     Visual  Images   • Experience  is  like  “seeing”  a  picture  in  your  head.  Is  it  really  a  kind  of  “seeing”?   • Individual  diffs:  People  differ  greatly  in  their  experience   • But  can  we  trust  people’s  self -­‐reports  of  visual  imagery?   o Chronometric  studies  of  imagery   o Mental  processes  take  time,  so  we  can  get  some  info  on  how  people  are  processingages.    mental  im   Diff  b/w  a  Description  &  a  Depiction  (Kosslyn,  1976)   • Group  1:  Form  a  mental  image  of  a  cat  (imagery  instructions)   o Does  a  cat  have  a  head?   o Does  a  cat  have  claws?   o People  using  imagery  are  FASTER  to  respond  “does  a  cat  have  a  head”   • Group  2:  Think  about  a  cat  (no  imagery  instructions)   o Does  a  cat  have  a  head?   o Does  a  cat  have  claws   o Faster  at  recognizing  claws   o People  NOT  using  imagery  are  FASTER  to  respond  to  “does  a  cat  have  claws”   • Depending  on  mode,  diff  features  will  be  prominent   o Description  –  distinctive  features,  strong  associates  are  prominent  (i.e.  claws)   o Depiction  –  large  things,  things  positioned  at  front  are  prominent  (i.e.  head)     Dual-­‐coding  Hypothesis  (Paivio)   • 2  codes  &  2  storage  systems   o Info  coded  &  stored  in  one  or  both   § Imagery:  pictures,  concrete  words   § Verbal:  some  pictures,  concrete  &  abstract  words   • The  concrete/abstract  dimension   o Extent  to  which  a  concept  can  be  represented  by  a  picture.   • Better  at  imagining  concrete  words  over  abstract  words  ( ∴  better  recall  for  concrete  words  than  abstr act  words)     Scanning  Spatial  Images  (Kosslyn,  Ball  &  Reiser,  1978)   • Demonstrate  that  a  mental  image  is  similar  to  perception  of  a  real  object.   o Image  has  spatial  properties.   o Takes  more  time  to  scan  large  distances  than  small  distances.   • A  fictional  map  used  to  study  the  effects  of  distances  on  mental  scanning  time   o Look  at  map,  take  map  away.  Imagine  a  speck  moving  from  place  to  place  in  the  map.  Longer  distances  are   harder  &  longer  to  imagine.     Visual  Images   • Memorize  map,  good  enough  to  draw  it  from  memory.   • “Form  an  image  of  the  map  in  your  mind’s  eye,  ‘look’  at  the  well.  Imagine  a  speck  moving  from  the  well  to  the  straw   hut.  Push  the  button  when  it  reaches  the  straw  hut”.   • Do  the  same  for  each  of  the  diff  pairs  of  landmarks,  end  up  w/  “scanning  times”  for  each  of  the  pairs.     Are  subjects  really  using  mental  images?   • Subjects  might  be  predicting  the  response  times  the  experimenter  wants .   o Subjects  are  successful  at  predicting  scanning  time  for  diff  distances  (Mitchell  &  Richman,  1980)   • What  about  scanning  times  for  stimuli  subjects  cannot  predict?   o Subjects  wouldn’t  predict  scanning  times  for  objects  that  were  shaped  differently  (i.e.  lines,  spirals,  m azes)   yet  scanning  times  varied  depending  on  the  shape  &  scanning  distance .     Investigating  spatial  characteristics  of  imagery  (Kosslyn)   • Participants  who  focus  on  one  end  of  the  image  take  longer  to  determine  whether  a  feature  exists  at  the  other  end.   • People  scan  their  images  at  a  const ant  rate  –  scanning  twice  takes  2x  longer,  3  times  takes  3x  longer.   • This  is  a  LINEAR  RELATION.   • The  image  you  form  has  some  of  the  properties  of  a  real  picture   –  maintains  the  spatial  layout.   • Analog  representation.     Visual  Imagery   • Effects  also  happen  when  you  ask  people  to  “zoom  in”/“zoom  out”  of  images  –  more  zooming  =  longer   • Participants  take  longer  to  judge  the  appropriateness  of  a  feature   of  an  animal  when  it  forms  a  smaller  image  than   when  it  forms  a  larger   image  (less  detail  available  –  faster  to  reply  about  images  that  are  larger) .   • Memorize  box  sizes.  Then  follow  instructions  for  crea ting  mental  images:   o Get  pink  square,  make  a  tiger  in  the  size  of  the  square.  Does  it  have  stripes?   o Imagining  tiger  in  smaller  squares  are  slower  at  answering  questions  than  im agining  tiger  in  larger  squares.   à  Time  required  to  determine  appropriateness  of  a  property  of  an  animal  as  a  function  of  the  size  of  the   image  (size  of  the  box).   • So  are  visual  images  literally  laid  out  the  way  pictures  are?   Not  necessarily.  The  points  aren’t  necessary  physical  close   together  in  the  brain,  but  they  are  functionally  close  together.  There  is  FUNCTIONAL  EQUIVALENCY.     Functional  Equivalency  Hypothesis  (Sh epard  &  Metzler;  Kosslyn)   • Second-­‐order  isomorphism   o Not  a  direct,  one-­‐to-­‐one  relationship  b/w  the  memory  objects  &  the  real -­‐world  objects,  but  the  relati onship   b/w  objects  in  memory  is  the  same  as  the  relationship  b/w  objects  in  the  real  world.   o i.e.  it  takes  longer  to  rotate  a  real-­‐world  object  through  90 °  than  through  45°,  &  it  takes  longer  to  mentally   rotate  a  image  through  90°  than  through  45°.     Functional  Distance   • The  diff  b/w  physically  close  &  functionally  close.   • The  point  is,  the  representations  of  the  image  in  your  brain  don’t  have  to  be  right  next  to  each  other.  In  terms  of   physical  layout,  we  don’t  know  if  they’re  really  picture -­‐like  or  not.   • Functionally,  the  representation  is  close
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