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PSYCH 2H03 (134)

Ch 2- Behavioural Genetics.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Chapter 2 Genetic Bases of Child DevelopmentThe Biology of HeredityMost cells of the body have a full set of 46 chromosomes while the gametes each have half that number23 chromosomes The first 22 pairs of chromosomes are called rdautosomes the chromosomes in each pair are about the same size In the 23 pair the X chromosome is much larger than the Y and are known as the sex chromosomesAn egg always carries an X chromosome while a sperm can carry either a X or Ycarries the fewest genes XXgirl XY boyEach chromosome consits of one molecule of DNA Each group of nucleotide bases that provides a specific set of biochemical instructions is called a geneFor most of history merging of the egg and sperm was only credible after sexual intercourse however the emergence of in vitro fertilization IVF has allowed conception to take place inside labatories and allowing the placement of the feritilized egg into the mothers uterus for further gestation The sperm and egg may come from prospective parents but are sometimes provided by donors Occasionally the fertilized egg may be placed in the uterus of a surrogate motherOnly about 13 of IVF succeed and so many couple will thus go through multiple attempts at fertilizationGenes and the EnvironmentGenes and environment work tgoether and affect one anotherEnvironmental influences occuring prenatally could have effects in the long run Epigenetics study of gene expression caused by certain base pairsGenotype and PhenotypeEg Height genetically we have the potential to be tall but raised in a malnutritious environment may stunt the growthEg Psychiatric disorders Caspi et al 2003lack of serotonin is believed to be associated with developing depressionthe genotype associated with serotonin didnt play an integral role if the environment the subject was raised in was positive this genotype only predicted depression levels if the environmnent was negativeEg Intelligence CooperZubek 1958investigated intelligence in rats abilities to complete the maze in a certain amount of timereared the rats in a standard lab decentneutral conditions enriched environments more stimulation and more places to explore and an impoverished environment in the standard lab conditions they were quick the impoverished rats were average the enriched rats were close to average bright rats did equally well in enriched environments
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