Psych 2NF3 C01 Dr. Khan 2014-01-14
Lecture 1: Introductory Neuropsychology
Aristotle – formal theory on what controls behavior
- He made error in stating that functions come from heart (rather than the brain)
- Mentalism – mind is involved in controlling behaviour. The mind in this case is the
consequence of functioning of the heart (according to Aristotle).
- Today mind is set in the brain.
- According to Aristotle, brain was a cooling system. Higher the intellect associated with
an individual, the larger the cooling system is.
Galen – physician in Roman ages with gladiators
− During this time period body is sacred so don’t use it for purpose of science. Galen was
able to look at injuries of gladiators. Saw nerves, blood vessels, channels
− Went against Aristotle’s Cardiac Hypothesis because he saw nerves projecting through
the brain to all parts of the body
− Galen suggested the Brain Hypothesis: the Cardiac Hypothesis doesn’t have merit to it
because there are many networks extending up to the brain
− The most crucial part of the brain according to Galen are the ventricles – empty
spaces where no tissues are present. It contains lots of fluid
− The tissue surrounding the ventricles were unimportant to Galen. The fluid is
probably what is guiding behavior differences between individuals
− This hypothesis went on for hundreds of years because
− Not enough technology to disprove
− People don’t go against the idea because it was the “accepted”. Fear of
going against the church
Andreas Vesalius – one of most leading people to document anatomy
− Document channels and networks that are in the body
- Look at anatomy drawings of humans via Vesalius
- Impressed by machines of his time (ie. Mechanical structure runs on fuel in order to
- Concept of Dualism: the brain is important and the mind resides in the brain.
- Mind resides in the pineal gland (called gland b/c it releases hormones)
- The mind is immaterial (can’t see it, can’t measure it but it exists)
- Dualistic thinking – have mind and a body, mind is immaterial, mind resides in the
pineal gland. Mind uses fluid in the brain and fluid circulating in body which
allows for movement and all of the behaviors that tend to exist.