Class Notes (808,549)
Canada (493,288)
Psychology (4,978)
PSYCH 2TT3 (28)

Principles of Animal Behaviour.docx

8 Pages
Unlock Document

McMaster University
Brett Beston

January 14 , 2013 Psych 2TT3: Animal Behaviour Principles of Animal Behaviour Objectives - the major components of behaviour, which are shared by most animal species - the two mechanisms that can change behaviour over time - behaviours are adaptations Animal Behaviour - self generated movement of either a body part or the whole body in animals - instinctive, instructive, consciousness The Major Components of Animal Behaviour - exercise: write down at least 5 classes of behaviour that most animals share - hint: think about human behaviours and then consider whether other animals (e.g. dogs, cats) do as well - the 4 F’s of animal behaviour:  feeding  fleeing predators  fighting  sex  sleep  social interactions, communication There are Millions of Different Animal Species, but most show similar general classes of behaviour - Kingdom animalia all share similar behaviours - What do animals eat, what nutrients to they need - Predation: find food or avoid being food - Fleeing strategies: climbing - Social behaviour: social learning, many animals live a structured social order - Reproduction plays a major role in animal behaviour: mating rituals in jumping spider, use an elaborate dance and auditory cues - In an evolutionary sense, we have innate reactions to the sight of predators that are threats to use, because of years of adaptations at the sight of the sabre-toothed tiger your hypothalamus secretes hormones which provokes secretion of adrenaline in the adrenal glands to trigger the fight or flight response Quando Omni Flunkus Moritati - when all else fails, play dead - possum: when they feel threatened they play dead, they also stick out their tongue, excrete odours - copper head snake: rise and contorts, collapses its tongue, smells of rotting flesh - a lot of these behaviours are innate Which is More Scary? - biological nature in why we are scared of snakes - however; traffic-related death in Canada, 2004:  fatalities: 2,730  serious injuries: 17,533  total injuries: 212,347 - death from snakebites in Canada, 2004:  0 - cars pose a relevant risk but we don’t pose an innate fear of vehicles Fighting - politically motivated death in the 20 century - 167,000,000 to 175,000,000 The Two Mechanisms that can Change Behaviour Over Time - evolution - learning - animals exhibit a wide variety of behaviours, all have originated through either evolution or learning Evolution - evolution is a process of change in the proportion of heritable traits within a population over many generations - evolution can be the gain or the loss of something - evolution isn’t directional - shaped over time - Charles Darwin: could identify where the different tortoises came from and that the tortoises close to the main land where more similar than those who lived further away - “at last gleams of light have come,a nd I am almost convinced (quite to the contrary to the opinion I started with) that species are not immutable” - proposed a mechanisms of how these organisms have changed: “if there is the slightest foundation for evolution, the zoology of the Galapagos will be well worth examining” Natural Selection - natural selection is the process whereby traits that confer the highest relative reproductive success can be passed down across generations and increase in frequency over many generations - natural selection requires 3 principles:  variation  fitness consequences: acquire mates and survival, measure of lifetime reproductive success  heritability - allows for testable hypotheses to be made Glapagos Finches - studied in the field extensively for 30 years - Peter and Rosemary Grant Evolution of Larger Beak Size - body and beak size is varied among the finches - heritable variation in beak size - higher survival of individuals with large beaks during drought Medium Groundfinch - small beaks are better at foraging small seeds - medium groundfinch eat caltrop fruit - finches with larger beaks are more efficient at cracking large seeds Individual Variation in Beak Size and Feeding - individuals with large beaks are more efficient at cracking open and feeding on large, tough seeds - individuals with small beaks are more efficient at feeding on small seeds - parent beak depth vs. offspring beak depth: relationship between the size of a parents beak and the size of the offspring beak, very high positive correlation - not only is there variation in beak size but there also seems to be a heritability factor Variation in Weather and Seeds Between-Years - in Galapagos there in dramatic variation in weather which effects available seeds - in dry years, there are few small seeds - in wet years, small seeds are common - a drought in 1977-1978 killed 80% of the finches - individuals with large beaks (who could crack large seeds) were more likely to survive - of the 20% that remain, there is a consistent pattern in larger beaks Evolution of Beak Size - all three elements of natural selection have been satisf
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2TT3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.