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Lecture 9

Lecture 9 (Chapter 10) - March 18 - PSYCH 2TT3

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McMaster University
Brett Beston

PSYCH 2TT3 2013 Lecture 9Chapter 10 ForagingForaging Overview Evolutionary biology of feeding oWhat should animals eatForaging and learningForaging and social learningWhat Should We Eat3 most important factors for humansnutrition content energy content costThe Role of TasteWe sense several tastes and textures through the mouth and numerous others through the nose sensed in the mouth o Sweet Bitter Salty Sour Umami Fat Hot spicy Taste is an evolved adaptation that guides animal food choiceThe following basic tastes indicate o Sweetsimple carbohydrates o Bitterpossibly poisonous or spoiled food o Saltysalt is an essential nutrient rare for much of our evolutionary history o Sourpossibly spoiledUmamithe taste of free Glutamate a common amino acid indicating the presence of protein o Glutamate rich foods meat fish milk some vegetables eg tomatoes some mushrooms and algaeGlutamate rich foods serve as natural taste enhancers cheese tomato sauceMonosodium glutamate MSG is an artificial taste enhancer has negative effects eg feeling bloatedFathigh energy content more than twice 9 kcal than carbohydrates and protein 4 kcala texture and sought out in abundanceHot spicy not a real tasteresponse to pain receptorIs spice consumption adaptiveantibacterial effects of spices why some like it hotWhy would natural selection favor the detection of spices and adding spices to dietLittle correlation between growth of spice in country and consumptionTemperature also has little effectPut spices on cultured dishes and see how spices inhibited bacterial growth over 24 hours o Some spices completely inhibit bacterial growth some 75 50 Predicationtraditional recipes in warmer climates would contain more species 42 spices in 6707 recipes from 36 countries o As it gets warmer proportion of recipes calling for spices increases Conclusionvariation in spice use between cultures may be partially adaptive behaviourPica Video ClipIt forages close to shelter because of predators eaglesIt spend much of its time feeding and sorting food for the winterThe food is low in calories and contains poisonous plants compoundsMany leaves are poisonous that act as a natural preservativeis advantageousTakes care to collect variety of plantsthose with little poison will be ready to eat quickly a lot of poison will last to the end of the seasonModern Humans DilemmaThe majority of people in Western society face the novel problem of higher energy intake than energy expenditureAnimals are adapted to maximize consumption of food rich in energy and specific nutrients which are typically in short supply fat protein carbohydrates saltAnimals are also adapted to minimize energy expenditure and exposure to danger predators injuries dehydration hypothermia etcMany of the nutrients that were in short supply over evolutionary time are now very common and very cheapThe majority of people in western society can live nowadays with minimal energy expenditure 1
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