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Lecture 8

Lecture 8 (March 11) - PSYCH 2TT3

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Brett Beston

PSYCH 2TT3 2013 Lecture 8Bird SongWhy Bother o Vocal signals are ubiquitous o Birds are a classical model system o Vocal learning has allowed the evolution of languageSoundpressure waves travelling through a medium o In air and water molecules are packed together at different densities depending on the air pressure o Sound pressure waves are relative to the ambient air pressure o Height of waveamplitude loudness o Distance between peaks or valleys one cyclefrequency pitchComplex Waveforms o Sine waves do not occur in nature o They must be artificially created o Naturally occurring sound are complex waveformso No regular patterns o Two people can say the same thingsound wave would be differentSonograms o Sound fingerprint o Represents sound o Looks at frequency and changes over time o Amplitude change and frequencyFrequency on y axisAmplitude based on darkness of dotsred specks are maximum loudness o Use to differentiate species or replicate sound Larynxproduces sound in humansThe Syrinx o MTM medial tympaniform membranespecial membranes MTM vibrate when air from the lungs is forced over them produces sound in birds o Low notes and high notes originate from opposite sides of the syrinx Song control in the braindifferent regions for learning and production of song o Production of SoundHVChigher vocal center dense collection of neurons that sends information RArobust nucleus HVCRAnXIIts hypoglossal cranial nerveDamaging one of the areas disrupts sound productionCan trace neural firingso Learning SoundLMANlateral magnocellular nucleus plays critical contribution to learning bird songArea Sst21 Century Researchlearning songs in birdZENKplays a role in neurogenesis and learningRecoding from individual neuronsMonitoring gene expressionEvolutionary genomics of song and languageEg Zebra finches and canaries1
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