Class Notes (835,638)
Canada (509,305)
Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 2TT3 (28)
Lecture

Week 8.pdf

4 Pages
81 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 2TT3
Professor
Reuven Dukas
Semester
Fall

Description
PNB  2XC3   Week  8   Oct.  29,  2013   EXERCISE:  Pavlov  dogs   • What’s  the  ultimate  reason  that  dogs  learn  to  salivate  when  they  anticipate  food?  Perhaps  food  is  eaten  or  digested   faster  if  the  body  is  physiologically  prepared.   • Is  it  a  universal  phenomenon?  YES  -­‐  Anticipatory  learning   • Do  animals  learn  to  associate  cues  w/  events   &  adjust  physiologically  in  anticipation  of  these  events?  Is  it  adaptive?   • Examples:  caffeine,  alcohol,  other  drugs     A  note:   • What  we  call  “drugs”  (&  many  of  our  spices)  are  mostly  secondary  plant  compoave  evolved  to  deter   animals  from  feeding  on  plant  parts  –  alcohol  is  a  byproduct  of  anaerobic  yeast  (&  bacterial)  metabolism .   • Animals  may  possess  counter  adaptations  for  breaking  down  certain  drugs .     Prediction   • Subjects  drinking  an  unfamiliar  drink  (gree n  peppermint)  will  show  stronger  intoxication  than  subjects  drinking  a   familiar  drink  (favourite  beer).   • Test   o Tracking  a  rapidly  moving  circle  with  a  mouse   o Word  search  in  a  16x16  grid  of  jumbled  letters   o Subjective  intoxication   • Conclusion   o Subjects  associate  familiar  cues  w/  anticipated  negative  effects  &  take  (unconscious)  physiological   measures  to  counteract  such  effects.   o Learning  helps  animals  to  anticipate  &  prepare  to  body  for  events  w/  strong  physiological  impacts.     EXERCISE   • Suppose  your  friend  drinks  coffee  occasionally.  This  evening,  instead  of  coffee,  she  rec eives  a  can  of  orange  juice  w/   the  same  amount  of  caffeine  to  that  of  a  cup  of  coffee.  Will  she  be  more/ less  alert  by  bedtime?  MORE  ALERT   o Not  receiving  the  same  cues  (bitter,  dark,  hot).   o Drinking  a  caffeinated  drink  not  previously  associated  w/  caffeine  results  in  strong  e ffects  of  caffeine   compared  w/  the  effects  of  drinking  familiar  coffee.   • Caffeine  causes  the  constriction  of  blood  vessels  in  the  brain .  Physiological  adaptation  to  caffeine   =  relaxation  of   cerebral  blood  vessels  to  counteract  caffeine’s  effect .  ∴  skipping  your  regular  morning  coffee  =  headache .   • Suppose  your  mistakenly  have  a  decaf  coffee  in  your  regular  mug   &  at  your  regular  morning  coffee  time.  Will  it   affect  you  &  how?  Yes  à  headache     Social  Learning   • There’s  either  no  or  limited  social  learning  in  many  species .   • Individuals  don’t  learn  from  others.   • Social  learning  is  important  where  it  occurs.     The  Life  of  a  Solitary  Wasp   • Males  emerge  in  late  July   &  females  ~  a  week  later.   • Males  defend  territories  &  attempt  to  mate  w/  newly  emerged,  virgin  females .   • Both  sexes  feed  on  nectar.   • Adult  lifespan  ~2-­‐4weeks.   • Both  sexes  show  individual  learning .   • Each  individual  is  on  its  own   –  there  is  neither  social  interactions  (just  male  fighting)  nor  s ocial  learning.   • This  is  typical  to  most  animals .     Probably  Social  Learning  –  The  Anecdotes   • Imo  the  monkey  (Japanese  macaque)  was  the  1  individual  who  washed  potatoes  to  remove  sand.  Other  monkeys   started  to  do  the  same  later.  Is  this  social  learning?   • Milk-­‐Bottle  Opening  by  Blue  Tits   o Behaviour  1  observed  in  1920s  England  &  spread  rapidly  among  blue  tits.   o Some  kind  of  social  learning  was  probably  involved  b/c  of  the  rapid  spread…   o Note:  There’s  no  empirical  evidence  for  either  social  learning  in  general  o r  imitation  in  particular  in  this   case  (pg.  170  in  textbook  is  wrong)   • Weakness  –  they’re  not  controlled  experiments  (but  inspire  such  experiments)     à  Inadvertent  social  info  =  By  doing  something,  others  learn  from  your  behaviour  (see  someone  skating,  know  ice  is  safe )   à  Intentionally  communicated  info  (i.e.  sign  saying  ice  isn’t  safe  to  skate  on)     Private  vs.  Public  Info   • Info:  Anything  that  reduces  uncertainty   • Private  info:  Inaccessible  to  others   • Non-­‐private  info  results  in  social  info   • Cues  reflect  inadvertent  social  info  (i.e.  In  rats,  observers  rely  on  demonstrator  breath  (=cue)  to  choose  novel  food)   • Signals  consist  of  intentionally  communicated  info     Social  Learning   • Is  it  really  diff  from  individual  learning?   1. Social  learning  can  be  much  faster  b/c  one  can  avoid   the  trail  &  error  that  accompanies  individual  learning.   2. Social  learning  across  generations  prevents  the  loss  of  info  upon  an  individual’s  death .   • Local  Enhancement  &  Social  Facilitation  –  Observers  ↑  the  likelihood  of  visiting  a  place  frequented  by  others,  or   is   more  likely  to  perform  a  behaviour  performed  by  others.   o i.e.  in  humans  =  yawning,     o No  explicit  social  learning.   o Benefit:  Most  often,  an  observer  joins  a  model  that’ s  probably  at  a  location  rich  in  food  &  is  safe.   o Application  in  conservation:  Attract  endangered  birds  to  a  restored  or  protected  habitat     à  Smell  of  other  rats  affects  what  observers  eat.   à  A  surrogate  rat  has  no  effect,  neither  does  dead  powdered  face  ∴  breathing  is  required.   à  C2  causes  significant  social  learning     Learning  how  to  eat  pine  seeds  in  black  rats   • Black  rats  invaded  pine  forests  in  Israel   &  fed  on  pinecone  seeds.  The  rats  chew  off  the  cone  &  carry  it  off.  The  most   efficient  way  to  remove  seeds  is  to  start  from  the  base   &  remove  scales  in  a  spiral  upward  fashion.   • Only  3%  of  adult  rats  inexperienced  w/  pinecones  learned  the  spiral  method  in  the  presence  of  ex.  nce  rats • All  adult  rats  reared  by  parents  usi ng  the  spiral  method  used  that  technique.   • 70%  of  rats  learned  the  spiral  method  in  the  pre
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 2TT3

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit