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Lecture

Week 10.pdf

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2TT3
Professor
Reuven Dukas

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PNB  2XC3   Week  10   Nov.  12,  2013   EXERCISE:  Anti-­‐car-­‐accident  Behaviour  in  Humans   • List  3  “adaptations”  by  pedestrians  that  reduce  their  probability  of  being  hit  by  cars.   o Walk  on  sidewalks  (avoidance  in  space)   o Cross  roads  at  green  light  (avoidance  in  time)   o Look  both  ways  (visual  inspection)   • Note  that  the  analogy  is  imperfect  b/c  unlike  predators,  drivers  don’ t  attempt  to  hit  pedestrians.     Predation:  The  central  challenge  for  most  animals  to  stay  alive.     Crowned  eagle  video  clip   • Hunting  of  vervet  monkeys  of  all  sizes  in  East  Africa .   • Predator-­‐prey  arms  race:  monkeys  stay  away  from  exposed  tree  tops   à  eagles  fly  among  trees  à  monkeys  have  a   special  eagle  alarm  call  &  attempt  to  drop  to  dense  bushes.   • Parental  care:  4  months  in  nest,  9  months  to  independence .     Balancing  Feeding  &  Antipredatory  Behaviour   • Food  &  patch  choice  –  Should  an  animal  prefer  lesser  quality  food  at  a  safer  place?  Feed  (head  down)  or  scan  for   predators  (head  up)?  Keep  feeding  or  flee?  Stay  in  a  shelter  or  resume  feeding?  What  is  the  optimal  amount  of  fat?   • Ants  could  choose  b/w  2  patches  containing  liquid  diet  of  diff  concentrations.     • The  high  concentration  patch  was  either  safe  or  had  a  predator.   • Ants  preferred  the  safer,  less  rewarding  patch  as  long  as:   o It  was  not  much  worse  (as  low  as  ~8x  worse,  or  12%),  &   o The  predator  remained  active  (4  vs  24h:  predator’s  attack  rate  decline  over  time )     The  Optimal  Amount  of  Fat  in  Birds   • Benefits:  insurance,  insulation   • Costs:  ↑  weight  =  ↓  energy  expenditure,  ↓  mobility,  ↑  predation  risk   • Horse  Racing   o Average  horse  =  500kg   o Average  jocky  =  54kg   o 0.3%  of  horse  weight  (1.5kg)  would  cause  a  ½  body  length  speed  reduction   @  finish  line  (humans:   0.3%*70kg=210gr)   • Birds  vary  their  fat  reserves  depending  on  expected  benefits  &  costs:   o More  fat  when  food  is  less  certain   o Less  fat  when  predation  risk  is  higher     Optimal  Egg-­‐hatching  Age  &  Habitat  Choice  in  Red -­‐eyed  Tree  Frogs   • Rapid  response  to  the  snake  attack   • Embryos  rel
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