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Non Normative Sexuality.docx

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Jennifer Ostovich

Non- Normative Sexuality 1 • Preferred sexual partners- mostly opposite but flexibility with women • Politics of homosexuality- still very controversial because people are obsessed with sex Origins of Homosexuality • Used to think people chose to be gay • Platoe- 3 sexes- 2 bodies in 1 body: male- male; female- female; male-female • Pissed off gods so split them into 2 ripping them apart- sadness Freud- thought bisexual is normal (naturally) and he was bisexual • Were id- sex and aggression- biological process • If raised properly- supressing gay side • If not good parenting- protective mother/ cold father- will be gay • Thought you can be cured • Used to be a disease until the 1970s • Egodestonic- gay and hate yourself Evidence • No difference between parenting and homosexuals • Found in non-human animals • Not curable • Sex orientation- homosexuality was always there- biological process Biological process of homosexuality • Genes, hormones, and brain= sexual orientation 1. Genes • 4-5 markers of sexual orientation • Genes code for sexual differentiation of body and brain xx and xy • But certain things must happens in order for complete sexua differentiation to occur • Genetic variants may cause those things not to happens - gay males insufficiently defeminized/ masculinized (very small) • Slight difference- affects sexual orientation • Gay females-> defeminized/ masculinized • Incomplete sexual differentiation of brain leads to sex- atypical reproduction behaviours in adulthood • Organizational- Activational Hypothesis -genui pigs exposed to a testosterone -the brain is permanently organized prenatally- activated when human becomes sexually receptive= puberty Probable Genetic Markers of Males • Genes predict homosexuality- found in males, not females Concordance Rates • Male (Bailey et al 1999) -MZ- 50% -DZ- 25% -Bro- 10% -Sib- 2% • More genes in common= more likely the same sexual orientation • Females (Pattatucci and Hammer 1995) same results Genes- mutation? Or evolution? Very mysterious - gay people don’t reproduce problem So how can Homosexuals Evolve? • 2 types of theories • Genes base theory -multigenic perspective- good side- effect not includes making you gay -persist in human genome - process similar to sickle cell anemia - recessive, having 1 allele= gives you protection against malaria and it survives because of malaria -some harmful mutation stick around because it is useful -sexually antagonistic selection process- females benefit but men harmful • 2 Gene Based Theory -Rahman and Wilson -fathers pass along gay genes to their male offspring -gay genes in men boost women’s reproductive success -more feminine -better fathers • Therefore, women select mates with these genes which keeps (male) homosexuality going • Camperio -did family study of gay vs. non-gay -Gay men families bigger from mom’s side compared to non- gay -mothers pass along gay genes to their mate offspring -“men loving” genes in women boost women’s reproductive success -higher sex drive in moms of gay sons get pregnant more easily - sex drive/ sociosexuality- unrestricted for those women • The drawback? Man loving genes in male offspring Kin Selection Theories • Inclusive fitness -being helpful to sister/brothers, siblings- generous towards their kids compared to their straight brothers • Inconsistent evidence -modern western cultures vs. pre-industrial cultures • Bobrow and Bailey (2001) -fail to support hypothesis -got the information from gay families a. money flow to siblings- gay vs. straight- given less $ than straight by parents, dislike in American cultures b. emotional distance- gay offspring more emotionaly distant from family (mom, dad, sibs) and live farther away from family c. frequency of contact- low phone calls with family • But… Vasey and Vanderloan (2010) - confirm hypothesis in Samoan fa-afafine (gay) - how helpful to family -caretaking tendencies- fa-afafine- kin fa-afafine more loving of children -non kin less caring (for all groups) • Why cultural differences? -pre-industrial more accepting and viewed more positively • Theory is still problematic- still don’t know how treated EEA Role of Hormones • Recall – By default, fetus’ brains and bodies are sexually undifferentiated – Sex hormones play a critical role in sexual differentiation of the brain and body • Action of sex hormones on prenatal development? – Females: Alpha-fetoprotein (usually) protects against defeminization and masculinization – Males: Testosterone (and related hormones) defeminizes and masculinizes Hormones • Brains and bodies are sexually undifferentiated Action of Hormones • Females: alpha- fetoprotein usually prot4ects against defiminization and masculinazation • Males: testosterone defiminizes and masculinizes Examples? • Clinical populations what happens when hormons go away? -XX: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH)- xx fetuses get masculinized horomes get into the brain, little penis more likely to be homosexual
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