02/23/2014 02/23/2014 02/23/2014 Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Day 4 February 7 th
Whether the individual knows if there is going to be portrayed a persuasive message.
Less attitude change when the audience knows the message is coming
Target is expecting interaction with the source and the individual is expecting a persuasive message then
the message will have no effect.
Young and old are more persuadable
Higher intelligence= less persuasion
More persuadable by twosided messages, leave the conclusion to be stated implicitly
Maybe more intelligent individuals are less affected by peripheral cues.
Less persuaded by weaker arguments
Positive relationship between persuasion and comprehension (perception; understanding, interpret the
Yielding: accepting, adopting the conclusion of the message
Negative relationship between intelligence and yielding
More persuasion when in the presence of those who agree with the message.
Part of a group in terms of beliefs, “group belief” Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
As social beings we are hugely affected by what other people believe.
Females are generally more persuadable than males (less stubborn, more willing to adopt new ideas).
Both males and females are less persuaded when in an area of personal knowledge (something that either
gender knows better than the other).
E.g females less persuaded about fashion info and males less about sports
Greater cultural expectations of conformity?
Women are more agreeable and expected to conform more the social expectations than men are.
Greater message reception skills?
Females have higher verbal skills
Perceive the message clearer, pay more attention
Interaction with gender of persuader?
Women more persuaded by females than males or vise versa
Possible persuasion greater in the presence of a source of a specific gender.
More persuaded by sources who have the same personality type
Introverts: advertising towards self development
Extroverts: social advantages, respect and like a someone if they buy a particular product.
Mood and Emotion:
Negative, unhappy moods:
Greater persuasion from strong than weak arguments
Positive, happy moods: Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Equally persuaded by strong and weak arguments
Less motivation under positive mood to decode and interpret messages (central route to persuasion);
do not evaluate arguments.
Motivation increases argument processing
More memories recalled under positive mood
Recall mostly positive memories
Lowers the cognitive capacity from recalling these memories which is important for argument processing.
Positive mood may be an absence of a threat or danger
Less need for detailed information processing
In a safety mood and we are in less mood to defend
Less information processing under positive affect, lack of distinction in argument quality and the strength of
a persuasive message.
Personality: Related to Major Motives
Knowledge: predictability, control, adaptation to avoid harm; need for the processing of information.
Need for cognition> individuals enjoy cognitive processing; problem solving, thinking about things.
Need to evaluate> make judgments
Need for closure> firm final answer to all issues
Causal uncertainty> need to know the reason why certain things happen.
Selfawareness> understanding who you are, characteristics
Consistency: need for internal consistency in thoughts and beliefs
Dogmatism Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Preference for consistency
Resistance to persuasion
Bolster and counterargue
Defensive confidence> belief that you can defend for your own beliefs
Need for uniqueness
Individualismcollectivism (Western vs Eastern culture in viewing the self)> individualists are more
persuaded by normative pressures.
Field dependence> related to introversion/extroversion; extent to which we pay attention to things outside
ourselves and things within ourselves to persuade us.
Machiavellianism> need/like to manipulate others
Personality and Persuasion: Need for Cognition
Tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful thought
18item Need for Cognition Scale (developed by Cacioppo)
Items to which people agree or disagree with
Search available info, especially logical or empirical
Elaborate persuasive messages; focus on validity Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Greater primacy effects for sequential arguments
Stronger arguments first to be more persuasive
More effective persuaders
Able to choose the strongest arguments to persuade others
Stronger attitudes, more resistant to change
Thought about their beliefs a lot
Considered their arguments for their beliefs.
Personality and Persuasion: Need to Evaluate
Tendency to engage in evaluative thought
16item Need to Evaluate Scale (developed by Jarvis & Petty)
Forms opinions about everything
Have more, and more accessible attitudes
Attitudes tend to be more stable
Tends to online rather than memorybased attitudes
Form attitudes on the fly more often
Political attitudes and Need to Evaluate:
More evaluative beliefs about candidates> which they like
More likely to use issue stances to evaluate candidates
More likely to be politically active, intend to vote
More intense emotional reactions to candidates> not just cognitive reactions. Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Day 5 February Attitude Change: The Yale Program 02/23/2014
Personality and Persuasion: Need for Closure
Desire for definitive answers
Need for certainty, want answers to significant questions
42item Need for Closure Scale
Reduced information processing
Less interested in assessing information
Prefer to have the answer now
More primacy effects, less datadriven
More influenced by peripheral cues