Attitude Change: The Yale Program 01/31/2014
Day 1 January 31 t
Carl I. Hovland: influential psychologist; published much, but difficult to replicate. Little evidence for role
of reinforcement in attitudes.
Took behavioristic approach, studied reinforcement in attitudes.
Source▯ Message (positive attitude towards the message)
The source may not actually have this opinion (are being paid to support this product or promote an idea).
Belief that people say what they mean and mean what they say
Audience▯ Message (?)
The Message typically contains persuasive arguments about why someone should believe the idea.
Positive reaction> persuaded by the source
Audience▯ Source (?)
Central route to persuasion> facts and content of the message
Peripheral route to persuasion> attributes of the source
Channel> newspapers, magazines, radio, television, mobile devices, internet (facebook), facetoface
(bathrooms, grocery stores).
Bases of Source Influence
Not relevant to attitude change:
Outcome control> ability to deliver rewards and punishments
Employers solicit campaign contributions from employees.
Instructors influence essay positions> higher marks assigned to papers or essays that supports the beliefs
of the instructor.
Coercion> use of threat of force (false confessions)
Stockholm Syndrome? ▯ cases where individuals have been kidnapped but come to adopt the beliefs of
their captures to prevent further injury by the captures (e.g Patty Hurst).
Government or employer makes demands that must be met> many of these lead to attitude change. Relevant to attitude change:
Individual recognized to have experience or knowledge in an area of field.
Physicians, scientists, lawyers, etc.
Useful info from whatever source
Admired individuals, those we identify with
Sports, Entertainment figures, Celebrities, parents, political, religious figures, friends, etc.
Amalgam of expertise, referent power, status, etc.
At least two of these
Presented individuals with a list of re