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PSYCH 3CC3 (101)
Lecture

Interviewing and Interrogation.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 3CC3
Professor
Richard B Day

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September 10 , 2013 Psych 3CC3: Forensic Psychology Interviewing and Interrogation Interview - Interview between interviewer and someone whom they believe may have information about the investigation - Makes no assumption about the guilty role - Designed to collect information Interrogation - Designed to elicit a confession of guilt from someone whom the interrogator believes to have criminal knowledge about the event Interview vs. Interrogation - Interview:  Designed to elicit information from witnesses and persons of interest  No implication of guilt - Interrogation  Involve persons thought to be perpetrator of crime  Guilty knowledge generally assumed Why No Good Interviews on TV? - Police not trained in appropriate interview techniques - Appropriate interview techniques seldom used in practice - Appropriate interview = boring TV Good Interview Protocols - Establish rapport with interviewee  Not unlike a good therapeutic interaction between a therapist and a patient  No best practice  Varies as a function of the interviewer  Also varies with the interviewee Aims of Rapport-Building 1. Interviewee does most talking as they are the ones who have the information  Need an environment where the interviewee feels free 2. Interviewer conveys non-judgmental, no-coercive understanding and acceptance 3. Interviewer created relaxed, informal feeling Instructions to Interviewee 1. Report everything  Regardless if the interviewee thinks the interviewer already knows, or believes it is not significant 2. Don’t guess or fabricate  Don’t make inferences about what you believe may have happened 3. Ask if question unclear  Understand what the interviewer is asking 4. Correct interviewer’s errors  Correcting the interviewers misinterpretation of what you said as their understanding is essential 5. Use comfortable language 6. Repeated questions <> errors  To make sure their recollection maintains constant  Repeating a question does not mean that the answer was wrong, example, children change their answers when they are repeatedly asked the same question as they believe the first answer is wrong Good Interview Protocols 1. Establish rapport with interviewee 2. Interviewee understands the rules of the interview 3. Use open-ended questioning  Most common error made in interviews  Mostly used closed questions  Open-ended: best way to get accurate information about what the individual has experienced Open-Ended Questions 1. Foster fuller memory retrieval  Remember more details  More accurately 2. Greater accuracy 3. Avoid problems with specific questions  More prone to errors  Lead to overestimate of language abilities  Interviewee is more likely to use the exact same words as the interviewer when they are closed questions  May not actually understand Good Interview Protocols 1. Establish rapport with interviewee 2. Interviewee understands the rules of the interview 3. Use-open-ended questioning 4. No interviewer bias Biased Interviewers 1. Report interview based on bias  Focus on the aspects of the interview that are consistent with bias  Interpret answers to fit with the bias 2. Overlook inconsistent information  Confirmation bias  Remember information consistent with our current beliefs  Do not remember inconsistent information  Reduced when we record the interview, allows other interviewers to notice missed information 3. Ask misleading, biased questions  Influence interviewees response, and distort memory 4. May distort witness testimony Where are we now? - Interviewers use short-answer questions  Failure to use open-ended questions - Interviewers use leading questions  Takes time for research to be applied in the legal system - No relationship between knowing best practices and using them  Training does not increase best practices - More open-ended questions after training on cognitive interview  The only exception Cognitive Interview - Designed to help someone who wants to be helpful but are having difficulty of recalling information - Reinstate the original context  Getting the individual into the same state  Imaging yourself back at the scene of the crime  Physically reinstating the context: results are mixed - Report everything  Open-ended, narrative report - Vary the order of retrieval  Repeat the sequence of events  Vary the order  Repeat the sequence of events in reverse or start at different points in the story - Change perspectives  Critics: how can they remember correctly from a perspective that they never had Hypnosis and Recall - Hypnosis reduces overall accuracy  Recall more true facts  Do provide a larger number of accurate recollections  Also provide an extremely large number of inaccurate recollections  Overall accuracy is lower than It would be out of the hypnotic state  Has the same confidence in the inaccurate recollections then they do in the accurate recollections  Extremely suggestive under hypnosis - More detail recalled - More errors made - Higher confidence in true, false recall - Testimony elicited under hypnosis is not admissible in court, example, recovered memories of childhood sexual assault The Reid Model - Only model widely used in North America - Developed in 1940s and 1950s - Developed by a police officer, John Reid Reid Model Assumptions - Based on importance but not necessarily accurate relations between interrogation and confessions - Many cases solvable only through confessions - Guilt admitted only after several hours of private interrogation  Lengthy period of time  ‘In your face’ approach - ‘Less refined’ methods required with suspects  Misleading  Coercive  Torture - Model is commonly depicted in the media September 12 , 2013 Reid Model of Interrogation - Part I: gather evidence, interview victim and witnesses  True of any investigation - Part II: non-accusatory interview to assess possible guilt (Behaviour Analysis Interview – BAI)  To watch the individuals behaviour for signs of lying and deception  Assume that we can detect deception  We are not very good at detecting deception  Criticisms rely on the research that detecting deception is not accurate  Indicators of deception are often confused with those of truth  Liars are more helpful in interviews and more relaxed - Part III: accusatory interview if suspect deemed guilty Reid Model, Part III - Confront suspect with guilt  Evidence  We know you are guilty  Set up a situation in which it looks like you have an overwhelming amount of evidence which points to their guilt - Offer acceptable reasons for crime  Providing an excusable moral reason for why the crime has been committed  Sympathetic  ‘Good cop bad cop’ approach in the first to steps of Part III of the Reid model – maximization and minimization  Maximization:  Stress the terrible aspects of the crime  Maximizing the significance and consequences of the crime  Minimization:  Minimize the nature and the magnitude of the consequences  Can be done in any order - Rebuff suspect’s denials  Prevent the suspect from talking about his innocence as much as possible  Physical gestures and interruption  The more they say they’re innocence, the more they will continue to hold this position  Lengthy process  Continue until the suspect falls silence - Reduce psychological distance  Establishing report  Become physically and psychologically closer to the suspect  Moving closer, touching the suspect, empathise, understanding  Positive approach - Show sympathy, understanding - Offer alternative reasons for crime  Offer a choice  Asking why they have committed the crime (ex.: psychopath vs. stress)  In both cases you are admitting guilt  Suspect takes the less morally pungent reason  Draw out a confession - Enlarge details into fuller confession  Full written description of the crime - Get suspect to write signed confession Good Cop, Bad Cop - Minimization (good cop): sympathy, excuses, justifications - Maximization (bad cop): intimidation, exaggeration, deception - May be lying about the consequences of a conf
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