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criminal profiling.docx

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Richard B Day

October 1 , 2013 Psych 3CC3: Forensic Psychology Criminal Profiling Murders in the Rue Morgue, 1842 - Uses information from a crime scene to estimate the characteristics and nature of the suspect - “His results, brought about by the very soul and essence of method, have, in truth, the whole air of intuition…the analyst throws - Least scientific area of all forensic psychology Sherlock Homes - A Study in Scarlet, 1887 - Arthur Conan Doyle’s - Sherlock Homes is a profiler - Characteristics of a crime scene and from that deduces the characteristics of the suspect Profile of Jack the Ripper, 1888 - First profile of an actual killer - Dr. Thomas Bond - Whitechapel murders - The murderer must have been a man of great physical strength and of great coolness and daring. He must…be a man subject to periodical attacks of homicidal and erotic mania… the murderer in external appearance is quite likely to be a quiet inoffensive looking man probably middle-aged and neatly and respectably dressed. I think he must be in the habit of wearing a cloak or overcoat…he would be solitary and eccentric in his habits, also he is most likely to be a man Purposes of Profiling 1. Provide offender characteristics 2. Help understand crime scene 3. Provide leads for investigators 4. Narrow pool of viable subjects 5. Prioritize investigation of subjects 6. Risk of offender escalation? Frequency or intensity of crimes in serial murder or serial rape 7. Evaluate suspect possessions 8. Develop interrogation strategies; how can we push there buttons, lower the defenses to obtain a confession 9. Show links between crimes; looking for a signature 10.Supportive trial testimony; much rarer Challenges of Profiling 1. Turning crime scene info into description of offender 2. Personality tests can’t do this; link between personality and crime scene is not very strong 3. Unscientific – intuition, experience; does not proceed from scientific method but from intuition 4. Not well evaluated – utility unclear; professional profilers do not release their profile as they are constantly adjusting their profile as new information comes in and therefore it is hard to evaluate these profiles  Little evidence for or against rd October 3 , 2013 FBI: Behavioural Analysis Unit - Founded in 1972 - Howard Teten -1 director - Most attention in the media - Early profilers  Robert Ressler:  Co-author of FBI’s Crime Classification Material  Sexual homicide patterns and motives: rape/homicide  Roy Hazelwood  Co-author of a number of books  The only living witness  John Douglas  Highest profile in the media  Has written countless books  Model for several media portrayals of FBI profilers o Silence of the lamb: agent Jack Crawford o Criminal minds: agent David Rossi - National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime  Behavioural analysis unit  East region (Criminal Minds)  West region  Total of 15 profilers in the FBI, largest report in the world  CASMIRC: Child abduction serial murder investigative resources center  Abduction and murder of children  Coordinate activities of regional police offices in the investigation of these crimes  VICAP: violent criminal apprehension program  Data collection center, much like CASMIRC  Serial murders, serial rape, children  Provide resources to local and regional police offices - Description of how FBI profilers work - Characteristics of different crimes - Profiling is the least scientific of each area of forensic psychology - Profiler does not include how they do their work - No instructions for conducting a profile - Profiling based on intuition - Stage 1: Profiling inputs  Pulling all information that will be used to construct profile  Crime scene information  Victimology – trend in profiling literature, if you know more about the victim you will be able to deduce something about the offender  Forensic information  Police reports  Photographs - Stage 2: decision Process model  Homicide type and style: classification system  Single  Double  Triple  More than three is a mass murder: victims were all killed in the same place in a short amount of time  Spree killing: victims killed in different places; multiple homicides without a cooling off period between victims  Serial murder: multiple victims, typically in different locations, at different times that can be separated by days, weeks, or months; cooling off period between crimes  Primary intent  Reason for murder  Victim, offender risk  Did the victim put themselves in a high risk situation  How much risk did the offender take in committing the crime  Inductive reasoning: statistical analysis based on previous crime database – early years spent interviewing criminals to obtain information about offenders and building up their database  Escalation risk  Time, location factors  Late night: works during the day  Midday: someone who does not have regular obligations  4-5 different locations o Meeting place o Assault phase o Final rape/murder phase o Where does the body end up? o If vehicle is involved, where is it? - Stage 3: Crime Assessment  Where the offender classification takes place  Crime reconstruction  Temporal sequence of the crime  Offender classification: “organized/disorganized”  FBI has simplified classification  Organized: plans out the murder, brings a weapon or means of immobilizing victim, uses deception or ruse to lour the victim, careful to get rid of evidence, typically has picked his victim early  Disorganized: spur of the moment, victim by chance, opportunistic  Staging  Staging the crime scene to appear as something else  Disorganized offenders do no stage, lots of evidence left behind  Organized does not leave behind a lot of evidence  Motivation  Rolling process, especially when serial crime is involved  Modify the profile as new information comes along  Crime scene dynamics  Activities of the crime scene - Stage 4: Criminal profile  Demographics  Sex  Age  Physical characteristics  Habits  Beliefs and values  About women primarily  Recommendations  Difficult to predict profile from crime scene evidence - Stage 5: investigation - Stage 6: apprehension - Last two stages are law involvement, generally FBI is not involved - Modus aparenda: suggests a standard way of committing crimes - Signatures: one thing that the offender does differently then others and always shows up in the crime, ex.: bomb construction Holmes and Holmes - Developed in the late 90s (FBIs 80s) - Offender typologies  Disorganized asocial (avoids other people; weird)/organized non- social (doesn’t care about social interaction) – critics are unsure about social aspect  Serial murderers o Spatial mobility: committing crime in small area or traveling some distance? o Visionary: typically is in the grasp of a delusion when he or she conducts the murder, experiencing symptoms of a mental disorder, almost always found not criminally responsible by virtue of mental disorder o Mission: victims all come from the same class of people, targeting victims; for example, sex trade murders are very popular, mostly morally based missions o Hedonistic: individuals who kill for their personal pleasure, sexual gratification, display of personal power over another individual, robbery (obtain money or other goods) o Power and control: typically the case in serial rape murders, individual reassuring his ability to control others (where the motive lies)  Rapists o Motive: what is the rapist after? o Power reassurance: insecure who rapes to reinsure himself of his ability to control his environment o Anger retaliation: angry and what’s to get back through rape, may not be directly to the individual, may be a resemblance or a convenience stand-in, purpose to harm o Exploitative: has the right to take things from others, demonstrate power, ability, and dominance over others, believes he is entitled to take what he wants o Sadistic: likes to inflict pain and torture on the victim, may lead to murder  Child molesters: o Situational o Preferential  Arsonists o Jealousy motivated o Would-be hero o Excitement fire-setter o Pyromaniac October 7 , 2013 Keppel & Walter: Rape/Murder Offender Typologies - Power assertive  Assertion of power through rape and murder; rapes planned; murders incidental - Power reassurance  Expresses sexual competence through seduction. Rape planned; but murder overkill. Motivated by seduction-conquest fantasy. Victim younger, known to killer. May mutilate post-mortem. - Anger retaliatory  Rape and murder planned out of anger, revenge; may be triggered by criticism, likely to be periodic to relieve stress. Assault is violent, disorganized. May take souvenir. - Anger excitation:  Gains gratification from inflicting pain and terror; rape and murder planned. Has fantasies of dominance and control; has eroticized his anger. Murder ritualized. - Power assertive is the most common - No cases that fell between categories - No cases that didn’t belong to any of the categories 40 20 0 Brent Turvey - Founded the academy of behavioural profiling to train others to become profilers Turvey: Inductive vs. Deductive Profiling - Inductive profiling  Starts with statistical generalizations: e.g., most rapists are single males aged 18 to 30  Problem: conclusion (this rapist is single male between 18 and 30) does not logically flow - Deductive profiling  Starts with specific crime scene evidence: e.g., there are motorcycle tracks at the crime scene  Conclusion: if they belong to the rapist, then he has access to a motorcycle - Work is based on experience Turvey Deductive Profiling Model; Four Components of Profiling - Forensic and behavioural evidence  Reconstruct sequence of crime events: witness and victim statements; crime photos; wound pattern and blood spatter analysis; ballistic evidence; other forensic evidence - Victimology  Physical characteristics; habits; lifestyle; relationships; risk level - Crime scene characteristics  Method of attack; nature of sexual or violent acts; verbal behaviour; precautionary acts - Deduction of offender characteristics - Behaviour-motivational typology:  Power reassurance  Power assertive  Anger retaliatory  Anger excitation  Profit: personal gain from a murder (i.e. money) - Problem with intuitive approach: no way to explain how to deduce a pro
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