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PSYCH 3CC3 (101)
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Introduction to Forensic Psychology.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYCH 3CC3
Professor
Richard B Day
Semester
Fall

Description
Introduction to Forensic Psychology Forensic Sciences (A-Z) - Anthropology: - Biology:  Botany  Entomology: - Chemistry - Engineering  Civil cases  Accident reconstruction  Fire and explosion analysis - Medicine  Pathology: what’s happened to the organs and tissues  Odontology  Toxicology - Meteorology - Accounting Forensic Evidence? - What proportion of criminal trials include the presentation of forensic evidence?  Less than 20% (10%) - What proportion of forensic evidence collected is analyzed?  45% to 59%  ~50%  DNA is the most reliable  Fingerprints and bullets aren’t as reliable Forensic Sciences Timeline - 1877: Thomas Taylor, in the U.S, suggests the use of fingerprints in criminal identification  Anthropometrics: height, weight complexion was previously used for identification - 1891: Ardentine Juan Vucetich makes first criminal ID using fingerprints. Austrian Hans Gross publishes “Criminal Investigation”; coins word ‘criminalistics’. - 1904: French criminalist Edmond Locard publishes “Criminal Investigation & Scientific Methods”. (‘Every contact leaves a trace’) First use of forensic geology by German Georg Popp - 1986: Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for SNA replication developed  Magnifies the DNA Forensic Psychology Timeline - 1842: Edgar Allen Poe’s “Murder in the Rue Morgue” feature M. Auguste Dupin  First representation of a psychological profile - 1887: Sherlock Holmes story “A Study in Scarlet” appears - 1888: Dr. Thomas Bond provides first offender profile in London’s Whitechapel murders case - 1895: In U.S., James McKeen Cattell conducts research on memory accuracy - 1896: Albert von Schrenk-Notzing testifies about effects of pretrial publicity on witness recall - 1901: William Stern conducts research on eyewitness testimony and leading questions - 1908: Hugo Munsterberg publishes “On the Witness Stand” - 1916: Lewis Terman’s Standford-Binet IQ test used too assess police/fire applicants in California - 1923: In Frye vs. United States, W. Marston provides expert testimony re polygraph results  Court set the standards for expert testimonies  To be an expert witness, one must be an expert in that field - 1954: U.S. Psychologists testify re affects of segregation in Brown vs. Board of Education  Psychologists testified - 1962: In Jenkins vs. Unites States, court recognizes testimony of psychologists re mental illness  Psychologist recognized as being experts on mental illness state at the time of the crime - 2001: American Psychological Association recognizes forensic psychology as a specialization within psychology What Do Forensic Psychologists Do? - Civil cases  Child custody assessments  Civil competence assessments  Expert testimony in damage and workman’s compensation cases - Criminal cases  Offender profiling  Competence to stand trial  Assessment of mental illness  Assist in jury selection (in U.S.)  Expertise re witness testimony, etc.  Witness accuracy  Pretrial publicity  Testimony re chances of rehabilitation, risk of violence, etc.  Information that may modify the sentence  Canadian psychologist have been vary influential in this area - As academics, researchers  Conduct research on forensic issues  Provide expert testimony on the above  PhD in an area of psychology Where do Forensic Psychologists Work? - Private clinical practice - Private consultant to attorneys - Hospital/mental health unit clinician - University academic researcher - Law enforcement agency Subfields of Forensic Psychology - Clinical-forensic psychology  PhD in clinical psychology  Assessment of fitness and treatment  Most work is done by clinical psychologist - Developmental psychology  In cases concerning child custody, and ability of children to make decisions - Social psychology  Expert testimony about the role of others in the accuracy of witnesses and the decisions of jurors - Cognitive psychology  In court testimony about witness identification and eyewitness testimony - Criminal investigative psychology  Profilers  The least scientific of all the fields in which psychologist are involved  Smallest field Interviewing and Interrogation Interview vs. Interrogation - Interview:  Designed to elicit information from witnesses and persons of interest  No implication of guilt - Interrogation  Involve persons thought to be perpetrator of crime  Guilty knowledge generally assumed Why No Good Interviews on TV? - Police not trained in appropriate interview techniques - Appropriate interview techniques seldom used in practice - Appropriate interview = boring TV Good Interview Protocols - Establish rapport with interviewee Aims of Rapport-Building 1. Interviewee does most talking as they are the ones who have the information 2. Interviewer conveys non-judgmental, non-coercive understanding and acceptance 3. Interviewer created relaxed, informal feeling Instructions to Interviewee 1. Report everything 2. Don’t guess or fabricate 3. Ask if question unclear 4. Correct interviewer’s errors 5. Use comfortable language 6. Repeated questions <> errors Good Interview Protocols 1. Establish rapport with interviewee 2. Interviewee understands the rules of the interview 3. Use open-ended questioning  Most common error made in interviews  Open-ended: best way to get accurate information about what the individual has experienced Open-Ended Questions 1. Foster fuller memory retrieval 2. Greater accuracy 3. Avoid problems with specific questions  Lead to overestimate of language abilities Good Interview Protocols 1. Establish rapport with interviewee 2. Interviewee understands the rules of the interview 3. Use-open-ended questioning 4. No interviewer bias Biased Interviewers 1. Report interview based on bias  Focus on the aspects of the interview that are consistent with bias 2. Overlook inconsistent information  Confirmation bias  Do not remember inconsistent information  Reduced when we record the interview, allows other interviewers to notice missed information 3. Ask misleading, biased questions  Influence interviewees response, and distort memory 4. May distort witness testimony Where are we now? - Interviewers use short-answer questions - Interviewers use leading questions - No relationship between knowing best practices and using them  Training does not increase best practices - More open-ended questions after training on cognitive interview Cognitive Interview - Reinstate the original context - Report everything - Vary the order of retrieval - Change perspectives  Critics: how can they remember correctly from a perspective that they never had Hypnosis and Recall - Hypnosis reduces overall accuracy  Has the same confidence in the inaccurate recollections then they do in the accurate recollections - More detail recalled - More errors made - Higher confidence in true, false recall - Testimony elicited under hypnosis is not admissible in court Reid Model Assumptions - Based on importance but not necessarily accurate relations between interrogation and confessions - Many cases solvable only through confessions - Guilt admitted only after several hours of private interrogation - ‘Less refined’ methods required with suspects  Misleading  Coercive  Torture - Model is commonly depicted in the media Reid Model of Interrogation - Part I: gather evidence, interview victim and witnesses - Part II: non-accusatory interview to assess possible guilt (Behaviour Analysis Interview – BAI)  Assume that we can detect deception - Part III: accusatory interview if suspect deemed guilty Reid Model, Part III - Confront suspect with guilt - Offer acceptable reasons for crime  ‘Good cop bad cop’ approach in the first two steps of Part III of the Reid model – maximization and minimization  Maximization:  Maximizing the significance and consequences of the crime  Minimization:  Minimize the nature and the magnitude of the consequences - Rebuff suspect’s denials  Prevent the suspect from talking about his innocence as much as possible - Reduce psychological distance  Establishing report  Become physically and psychologically closer to the suspect - Show sympathy, understanding - Offer alternative reasons for crime  In both cases you are admitting guilt  Suspect takes the less morally pungent reason  Draw out a confession - Enlarge details into fuller confession - Get suspect to write signed confession Good Cop, Bad Cop - Minimization (good cop): sympathy, excuses, justifications - Maximization (bad cop): intimidation, exaggeration, deception - Deception has been reduced since they began recorded interrogations - Can judge whether or not the confession is admissible Problems with Reid Model - Hard to detect deception in initial interview  Research suggests that the characteristics that the BAI are looking for are not characteristics of lying - Belief in suspect’s guilt introduces bias  Part III begins with presumption of guilt, and is therefore biased; and prevent suspect from denying his guilt - Coercive interview may lead to false confession  Source of most criticism  Techniques that are known to elicit false confessions PEACE Model of Interrogation - Planning and preparation - Engage and explain - Account - Closure - Evaluation PEACE: Planning and Preparation - Define aims and objectives of interview - Get background information - Understand the points to prove - Assess available evidence - Assess what evidence is needed - Set the stage for the interview  Do not separate yourself from the interviewee  Make the impression that you have evidence Poor Planning Leads To - Overlooking important evidence - Not identifying inconsistencies and lies  Confront the individual with any inconsistencies: - Taking breaks to get more info  Gives the suspect time to rethink - Needing more interviews with suspect - Losing control of the interview  Strengthens reluctance of the suspect PEACE: Engage and Explain - Initial good impression; politeness, courtesy and respect  Establish report  Explain the process of the interview and what steps may be taking afterwards - Respond to interviewee’s needs, concerns - Empathize while remaining objective - Explain reason for interview; emphasize interviewee’s importance - Outline and explain interview procedures Account - Get Interviewee’s free-recall account  Use open-ended questioning  People who are trained in the PEACE method tend to ask more open- ended questions - Expand and clarify that account  Relatively close-ended questions - Challenge that account, if needed Closure - Review interviewee’s account to ensure mutual agreement - Ensure interviewee has given all available information - Explain next steps in process - Last stage to involve the interviewee Evaluation - After the interview is over - Evaluate the interview in terms of the goals you wanted to achieve - Were interview objectives achieved? - Impact of interview on investigation? - Could interview be improved? - Hasn’t been much research on the PEACE model  Leads to fewer false confessions  No evidence that it leads to fewer confessions False Confession - False confession: information in the confession is false - Retracted confession: confession may be true, but suspect repudiates it - Disputed confession: is confession legally admissible as evidence? False Confessions: 3 Types - Voluntary false confession: suspect confesses falsely without coercion - Coerced-compliant false confession: confession made under duress - Coerced-internalized false confession: confession is false, but suspect comes to believe it Voluntary False Confession - Desire for notoriety - Deficient reality testing; mental illness - Desire to atone for other sins or offenses - Research determines that these are the most common reasons Coerced-Compliant - End interrogation - Earn promised rewards - Avoid threatened punishments - Reid model likely to lead to such confessions Coerced-Internalized False Confession - History of substance abuse - Inability to distinguish between suggestion and personal experience - Anxiety, guilt over something - Reid model is more likely to lead to these false confessions Russano et al, 2005 - Participant plus confederate - Brought to laboratory to work on a number of problems, some of which they can collaborate on, the others they must work on individually - Confederate coerce the participant into helping and committing an act of academic dishonesty - Two conditions:  Innocent: nothing happens  Guilty: induced by confederate to assist on independent problem - Answer similarity ‘discovered’; (blind) researcher interrogates participants - No tactic:  40% of guilty party confess  5% of innocent confess - Explicit leniency: you will loose your research credit  80% of guilty confessions  15% of innocent participants confess - Minimization: threatens to call professor  85% of guilty confessions  ~20% of innocent participants confess - Both:  90% of guilty confessions  Almost 40% of innocent participants confess - Not as great of charges that we see in reality; therefore, there may be more false confessions Kassin et ak, 2005 - Inmates provide true, or concocted confessions to crime - Two groups assess truthfulness of audio only or video plus audio of concessions  Intro Psych students  Experienced police investigators - Overall accuracy = 54%; same as change - Hit rate for truth = 64% - False alarm rate for truth = 56% - If you look at the raw averages, the accuracy of the intro psych students were better than those of the experienced police investigators - Police investigators had a higher confidence rate - Accuracy was greater if they did not see the video; audio only Detecting Deception Working Cues to Deception - Associated with deception at a greater than chance level 1. Liars less forthcoming  Some studies oppose this cue 2. Liars tell less compelling stories 3. Liars = more negative impression 4. Liars more tense 5. Fewer imperfections, unusual content The Language of Deception - Verbal immediacy: present tense, active voice  Lying is associated with lower levels of verbal immediacy: past tense, distance from the events  Not an extraordinarily strong relationship - Fewer details in story - Impressions of verbal uncertainty  Truth-tellers provide a greater sense of certainty - Impressions of nervousness - Lack of logical structure to story - Lack of plausibility to story - Raised pitch of speech  Slight tendency  Not very strong - More correlated but cannot actually be used to determine deception Detection Easiest When - Lies have high personal relevance - Stakes of deception are high - Liar knows he’s lying - Liar has little chance to rehearse Ekman, O’ Sullivan and Frank (1999) - Detecting falsehood based on viewing a videotape of true or false statements - Comparing: federal officers, sheriffs, federal judges, deception/clinical psychologists, regular clinical psychologist and academic psychologist - Overall accuracy:  Federal officers scored the best  Second clinical/deception psychologist  Federal judges and academic psychologist are the least accurate (70%) - Lie accuracy:  Federal judges do the worst  Probability of detecting lies is higher than overall accuracy - Truth accuracy:  Much lower at detecting truth  ¼ of the time we are making mistakes at truth-telling - Most mistakes are biased towards seeing lies when there aren’t any Polygraph vs. Lie Detector - Polygraph: machine to record voltages - Lie detector: application of polygraph Polygraph Record - Polygraph examiner uses the data to make a judgement about deception or honesty - Blood pressure - Heart rate - Respiration (breathing) - Galvanic skin response (conductance or resistance) - Designed to detect anxiety or other negative emotions - Liars are more likely to be anxious – this is an assumption behind the polygraph test that is not always true Control Question Test (CQT) - Involves asking several different kinds of questions - Yes/no questions to reduce the variability - Relevant questions: about crime - Irrelevant questions: about nothing - Control questions:  About general immoral or unethical behaviour - Relevant and control questions are the most important Control vs. Relevant - Truth:  Control questions should be more anxiety producing than relevant questions - Lie:  Liars are more anxious in the relevant questions than in the control questions - Opposite pattern of arousal from liars vs. truth tellers CQT Procedure - Pre-test  Designed to relax the individual and to draw the individual irrelevant questions  Convince subject of test accuracy - Test  10 sets of questions with 3 pairs of control and relevant questions  Ask and score questions  5 different measures  Compare each of the measures on each pair of control and relevant questions  If the control arousal than the relevant questions it is an indication of truth telling and is scored as +1 to +3  If arousal to relevant question is higher than control questions it is an indication of deception it is scored as a negative number  For each pair of questions you have 5 comparisons from each of the measures  15 different scores  Maximum scores: -45 to +45  How low does the score have to be to determine lying is a subjective judgement from the examiner - Post-test  Sum scores, interpret results Critique of CQT - Truth-teller may respond more to relevant than to control questions - Liars may respond more to control than to relevant questions if they have been asked before Guilty Knowledge Test GKT - Application of polygraph - Only on physiological response is measured: galvanic skin response - Not lie detection; knowledge detection -
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