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PSYCH 3CC3 (101)


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Richard B Day

November 21 , 2013 Psych 3CC3: Forensic Psychology Psychopathy History of Psychopathy as a Construct - DSM does not contain the construct of psychopathy; did appear in the very first DSM, replaced with anti-social personality disorder - Psychopathy is a synonym for the antisocial personality but most people do not consider these things to be the same - Difference: antisocial focuses on illegal and unlawful behaviour and is the primary criteria for antisocial disorder; psychopathy includes behaviour and personality characteristics (broader but fewer people meet the criteria for psychopathy than antisocial personality) - Most murderers are not psychopaths; most psychopaths are not killers - Emil Kraepelin (ca 1895):  Moral insanity  Defective ability to restrain: the reckless gratification of immediate egotistical desires - Hervey Cleckley, prison psychologist:  The mask of sanity (1941-1988)  White these individuals are sane by legal criteria, there is something that is even more dangerous in psychopaths than those who are insane - Robert D. Hare  Developed the psychopathy checklist  Psychopathy: theory and research (1970)  Psychopathy checklist – revised (PCL-R, 1991) Checkley’s Construct of Psychopathy - Superficial charm and higher intelligence - Absence of delusions and irrational thinking  Not psychotic in any way  Appears to react with normal emotions - Absence of nervousness  No symptoms of anxiety  Immunity from anxiety or worried in concerning situation - Unreliability  Shows no sense of responsibility  Does not need a big trigger to become upset  Inconsistency in inconsistency - Untruthfulness and insincerity  Unperturbed by circumstances of untruthfulness  Convincing outer appearance - Lack of remorse or shame  Cannot accept substantial blame  Serious attitude is inconceivable - Inadequately motivated antisocial behaviour  Does not take much to engage in antisocial behaviour  Commit acts for small stakes  Commit in the absence of any apparent goals at all - Poor judgment (failure to learn from experience)  Throws away opportunities to make money or to gain other ends that he may be advantageous  Punishment will not make them change their ways - Egocentricity and incapacity to love  Self-centeredness that is unmodifiable and all but complete  Incapacity for object love; can’t love anybody else  Capable of likes and dislikes  Limited in degree  Also vary in durability  Pretending or simulating affection - Poverty in major affective reactions  Readiness of expression rather than a strength of feeling - Specific loss of insight  Found in seriously disturbed psychotic patients  Lacks insight more consistently than schizophrenics  Does not know how others see him - Unresponsiveness in interpersonal relationships  Cannot be treated  Superficial and transparent: only when they feel it will facilitate themselves - Fantastic and uninviting behaviour with drink  And sometimes without drink  Overindulgence is often prominent  Vulgarity, rudeness  Pathonomonic: especially distinguished in the psychopaths - Threats of suicide rarely carried out  Care to much about themselves and blame others for their misfortunes - Impersonal, trivial, and poorly integrated sex life - Failure to follow any life plan - Why psychopaths make excellent salesmen and politicians - These people are very convincing November 25 , 2013 DSM-5 Criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder - Focus more strongly on antisocial behaviour and less on the personality or feelings as does psychopathy - A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of rights of others, occurring since 15 years of age, indicated by three (or more) of the following: 1. Failure to conform to social norms with respect to lawful behaviour… repeatedly performing acts that are grounds for arrest 2. Deceitfulness…repeated lying, use of aliases, or conning other for personal profit or pleasure 3. Impulsivity or failure to plant ahead 4. Irritability and aggressiveness…fight or assaults 5. Reckless disregard for safety of self or others 6. Consistent irresponsibility…failure to sustain consistent work behaviour or honor financial obligations 7. Lack of remorse…being indifferent to or rationalizing having hurt, mistreated, or stolen from another - Individual is at least 18 years of age - Conduct disorder before age 15 (3 or more of the following)  Aggression to people and animals  Bullying, threatening, intimidating others  Physical fights; using a weapon  Physically cruel to people, animalrs  Stolen face-to-face; forced someone into sex  Destruction of property  Deceitfulness or theft  Theft; shoplifting; forgery  Lied to others for gain or obligation avoidance  Serious violation of rules  Out without permission before age 13  Run away twice overnight (or once for long time)  Repeated truancy before 13 ASP vs. Psychopathy - Canadian prison inmates:  50-80% meet criteria for ASP  10-25% meet criteria for psychopathy under PCL-R - Offender types:  Est 10-15% of child molesters meet criteria for psychopathy  Est 40-50% of rapists meet criteria for psychopathy  Est. 75-95% of serial murders - General population  Est. 1% meet criteria for psychopathy  Strongly skewed towards men Recidivism Rates for Psychopaths - Predictor that these behaviours will reappear in the future - Psychopaths reoffend, violate parole, sooner, commit more institutional violence (Porter et al, 2000) - Psychopathic adolescents more likely to reoffend, escape custody, violate probation (Gretton et al, 2001) - Dramatic differences between psychopathy and non-psychopaths November 26 , 2013 Dr. Robert Hare - Professor Emeritus at University of British Columbia - Member of Advisory Board for FBI’s CASMIRC (child abduction and serial murder research center) - Recipient of numerous awards:  Distinguished applications in psychology (CPA, 2000)  Distinguished applications to forensic psychology (academy of forensic psychology, 2001)  Isaac Ray award for outstanding contributions to forensic psychiatry and psychiatric jurisprudence (APA, 2001) - Developed a screening tool (research tool) for determining psychopathy - PCL-R is a structured interview: collecting information through face-to-face interview and collecting information from files of the individual, talk to members of the family or jail guards (anyone who has sufficient connection to the individual) Psychopathy Checklist - Designed to assess personality style that involves the remorseless use of others and subsequent irresponsible and antisocial behaviour” -
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