Thursday January 30, 2014
We are also confronted with stereotypedisproving information all the time, so why do we
still keep them?
It isn’t even good in this culture to have stereotypes, but we still do it!
We have dissonance
Reduce dissonance by keeping out of cognitive awareness that we are using stereotypes
Cognitive Biases 1: Encoding
We can use encoding and attention biases to ignore or discard stereotype inconsistent
Attention bias is a tendency to only pay attention to instances that reinforce your
stereotypes, and to ignore things that disprove your stereotypes
Encoding bias, only process things that prove your stereotypes, fail to process things that
disprove the stereotype
Ottati et al
Present subjects with list of behaviours about a particular
List of behaviours engaged in by person named ‘Jason’
What is manipulated is whether Ss have access to stereotype about Jason
Stereotype is implied
‘Jason goes to high school which caters to belowaverage intelligence, belowaverage
No one told you that he is in the ‘dumb people’ group
Some subjects are given a completely opposite description, ‘high school student that goes
to school for aboveaverage intelligence… etc.
List of behaviours includes some intelligent, some unintelligent behaviours, and some
that have nothing to do with intelligence
Ss are given a surprise freerecall test, write down all the behaviours you can remember
Jason engage in
Coded answers as stereotype consistent, stereotype inconsistent or neither
Remembered significantly more Encoding bias, knew what group Jason belonged to before they saw the list of behaviours
Preferentially encoded and thought about behaviours that reenforced their stereotype
Koomen and Djiker
Encoding bias differ depending on who you’re getting information about?
ingroup member versus outgroup member
Outgroup members: had a bias towards encoding stereotype consistent information, out
In group Members: aware of stereotype about the ingroup, Ss preferentially remembered
the stereotype inconsistent information, promotes ingroup heterogeneity
May sometimes encode information about subject, but not know anything about them
Have a good friend who you automatically assume is straight, but then comes out as gay
Your friend doesn’t match gay stereotype, what do you do?
Cognitive Bias 2: Retrieval
We can actually encode information accurately, and without any encoding bias going on,
we can still keep stereotype by losing the informati