Factors associated with stereotype use
Overview: when do we use stereotypes?
automaticity of categorization and stereotyping; what types of situations are associated
with a higher or lower likelihood of stereotyping? Can we overcome stereotyping?
two research questions:
does affect affect the extent to which we use stereotypes?
can we cognitively override stereotyping?
effects of affect on stereotyping:
interacting with outgroup members can cause negative feelings (fear, anger, anxiety)
we can enter into interactions with outgroup members with preexisting moods unrelated
to the interaction, positive or negative.
research on affect and stereotyping asks 3 questions
1. does mood affect the likelihood of stereotype use? yes, because mood affects cognitive
processing/heuristic use. some moods, process more peripherally, others, more centrally.
2. why does mood affect the likelihood of stereotype use? (mechanism)
3. do different moods differentially affect stereotype use? (different types within negative
mood might affect info processing or stereotyping differentially)
Stroessner & Mackie (1992): tested likelihood of using outgroup homogeneity
used mood induction: induced positive or neutral mood.
Methods: IVs mood, variability. DV: variability estimate (19 Likert scale). Induced
mood, then P's read statements about things group members did. The list of 28
behaviours were either highly variable (HV) (more heterogenous) or low in variability
(LV) (more homogenous). Estimated variability or similarity between group members'
behaviours. Neutral mood P's recognized heterogeneity and homogeneity of behaviour
sets they were given.
Positive mood P's did not perceive heterogeneity as much. They perceived a homogenous
group no matter what the behaviour set they were given.
*mood affects our ability to perceive outgroup heterogeneity.*
Positive mood & stereotype use
Bodenhausen, Kramer & Susser (1994)
basic structure of these experiments: Subjects will have mood induced and then have the
opportunity to use a stereotype.
Expt 1: S's expect to do 2 different experimenters. Mood induction using a writing
assignment about a memory (reexperience a happy memory and write about it). Or the
S's write abou