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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - January 10th.doc

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Jennifer Ostovich

Lecture 3 Ingroup-Outgroup Categorization • can either categorize “like me” (ingroup) or “not like me” (outgroup) • special consequence of categorizing people • consequences of categorization - outgroup homogeneity and ingroup heterogeneity we assume that everyone in the outgroup are all the same (not unique individuals) • - once we’ve decided they’re in the outgroup, we are no longer interested in thinking deeply about them (saves cognitive capacity for other things) • think our ingroup is made of unique individuals with one common characteristics (allows us to discount “bad” members of our ingroup, and maintain some status for our ingroup and maintain our SE) engage in these processes because we don’t have to think about outgroup, or • can feel better when our ingroup member does something ‘bad’ (saves our SE) • outgroup homogeneity supports stereotypes - rejects negative stereotyping of our ingroup • two important theoretical questions - ingroup favouritism (positive ingroup bias), outgroup antipathy • how important does the ingroup have to be in order to produce favouritism? - doesn’t really matter • does having an ingroup mean disliking the outgroup? - probably not necessarily • ingroups are meaningful to us (by definition when you belong to a group, it can become meaningful in some situations) minimal group - group formed for experimental purposes (based on something • unimportant - usually done by random assignment) • no coherent structure, no face to face interaction with group, no group norms or values, your group doesn’t really interact with any outgroup (all you know is that there’s an us and a them - don’t know who’s who) • use this because there are no strong pre-existing feelings (thus can’t use religion or race etc.) • Tajfel experiment (1976-ish) - recruited school boys and brought them into the lab in groups of 8 and had them do tasks they thought were unrelated • task 1 - visual judgement (estimate how many dots were on the slides) • Ss thought they were being scored • task 2 - ‘separate experiment’ but split up groups based on overestimation or underestimation of dots on the
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