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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - January 9th.doc

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Jennifer Ostovich

Lecture 2 Stereotype Formation - Role of Categorization • stereotypes come from automatic, uncontrollable cognitive processes (esp. categorization) • categorization can be helpful because we can tell what we like and what we don’t • also categorize people - black vs. white, old vs. young etc. •categories aren’t useful to us in prediction of the world unless it contains info •when it’s people we explain what the categories are using stereotypes (potentially harmful and damaging) • Shelly Taylor (1978) - brought people into lab to watch a slide show accompanied by an audio conversation (b/w three men and three women) •when one of the people were saying something, a slide showed the person - voice is associated with the picture (all people are equal attractiveness) • after this they’re given a “pop quiz” of who said what •IV - told to categorize the people vs. no instructions •DV - who said what • everyone knew whether a man or women said something - accurately categorized in terms of gender (automatic - no difference in accuracy of recall across conditions) • categorize usually in the obvious/salient info • we have a lot of info coming at us all at once - limited cognitive capacity system (need something to help us deal with the info) •we categorize as soon as we see things - helps do away with deep thinking (evolutionary adaptability - can know who’s a friend or enemy) •even 6 month olds are shown to categorize - even in infancy we do this • we categorize based on salience (esp. race, age and gender - basic/primitive categories) •social context can make these categories more or less obvious • when you have someone who’s unusual in a group, more likely to categorize them (rather than the others) •accessibility of categories - how accessible are the categories to us in our long term memory system (eg. if we’re really into politics, we might categorize people based on political affiliation) • based on personal and cultural experiences • categories contain information - helps us navigate the objects •when we start categorizing people we use stereotypes (generalized beliefs
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