Stereotype Formation cont.
What do these results imply?
Ingroup Favouritism vs. Outgroup Antipathy
Perdue et al. (1990): Experiment 1
Shows that you do not have to hate your outgroup.
Classical conditioning: involves the pairing of two things together.
Used a paradigm involving nonsense syllables
Conditions (IV; within Ss)
Nonsense syllable always paired with ingroup word
Ex. Xeh – us; xeh – we; xeh – ours
Nonsense syllable always paired with outgroup word
Ex. Yof – them; yof – they; yof – theirs
Nonsense syllable always paired with neutral word
Ex. Laj – she; giw – he; wuh – it
If primed, words associated to ingroup should have positive feelings and words associated to outgroup
should have negative feelings IF there has to be a negativity attached to outgroup
Should all only happen if ingroup favouritism is always going to happen
DV: pleasantness ratings of the nonsense syllables (zscores)
Perdue et al. Results (Expt 1)
0 is neutral, pleasantness is neutral
nonsense words associated with neutral and outgroup both had a neutral pleasantness rating. Difference is
suggests that outgroup ratings are not associated with negative feelings.
Ingroup ratings is significantly different ▯ significantly positive compared to neutral point on pleasantness
scale. Really liked ingroup paired nonsense syllables, did not care about the neutral and the outgroup
Not about the syllable itself, about the associations that were primed More on Outgroup Apathy
Perdue et a. (1990): Experiment 2
Masked priming procedure ▯ primed too quickly for person to remember
Reaction time as a measure of spreading activation
When you see something, goes into your visuospatial cognitive system. Can stay there for a second or
two. May not have seen it consciously, but it may be saved. If it is x’d over immediately, the last thing in your
visuospatial sketch pad is the x’s rather than the prime word.
Prime using ingroup vs. outgroup words
Ex. We, us, vs. they, them
Target word = positive or negative trait adjective
RT in categorizing the target word as
A good trait for someone to have
A bad trait for someone to have
IF ingroup favouritism is automatic, ingroup primes should lead us to be quicker on good traits and slower
on bad traits
Perdue et al. Results (Expt 2)
Outgroup did not favour one thing over the other. Not statistically significant.
Ingroup prime – reaction time got faster for positive times, reaction time was significantly lengthened for
Suggests that we do not have any natural hatred for people just because they are in our outgroup
Ingroupoutgroup categorization may be inevitable
Ingroup favouritism may be inevitable
BUT outgroup antipathy is probably not inevitable
Allport (1954) on “love prejudice” vs. “hate prejudice”
We all seem to love our ingroup too much. This love prejudice may be the basis for hate prejudice. We only
hate outgroups who are threa