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PSYCH 3F03 (153)


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Walter Peace

Lecture#19 Personality (Part VII) Ÿ Behavthurism and social learning theory is the second of three movements (forces) that predominated the 19 century Ÿ Julian Rotter who did much of his writings in the late 40’s and 50’s, gives an extraordinary elegant simple idea of human behaviour, based on behaviourism Ÿ One of the things is to understand the concept of psychological situation; we respond not to situations per se, but rather to our perceptions regarding them (subjective interpretation of the situation) Ÿ Distinction between objective and subjective, and subjective has primacy, any situation that is seen to be real, it will be real, whatever you see or perceive is all that matters, its meaning to you Ÿ Rotter feels the very key concepts are expectancy and reinforcement value Ÿ Expectancy for Rotter is the subjective belief in the probability that a given behaviour will lead to a particular outcome, or reinforce one Ÿ Expectancy usually phrased as ‘if I do this, then this will happen”, what your behaviour will result in Ÿ Reinforcement value is the desirability of an outcome to you (this is subjective, can be consistent with reality or not, with others’point of view, or not, etc.) Ÿ Expectancies and values are personal, and they are not expected to generalize between one and another person Ÿ All behaviour is a function of your expectancies and reinforcement value, what you will do is what you will expect to happen, and knowing these two concepts allow us to understand normal and abnormal behaviour Ÿ e.g. from slide: what is the likelihood that Jane will act in a conscientious way with respect to her working habits, she values success and working hard, so her behaviour potential is very high because she expects good things to come for her hard work and she assigns values for those outcomes Ÿ John has reoccurring acts of nervousness, and close only to those people that are required to know him, interpersonal difficulties: what is the likelihood that John will start a conversation, he expects rejection, he thinks no one will be interested, and they will find him weird, but he creates the value that people liking him is important to him, so his expectancy to start a conversation is really low (this shows that one aspect is not enough, you must have the expectancy and a reinforcement value for the behaviour to occur) Ÿ Julian Rotter and George Kelly both attended Ohio State Ÿ George Kelly had an unfortunate short career, he died in 1961, after publishing his book, he was a opposed to motivational theories, he rejected psychoanalysis and behaviourism, and thought it was all a waste; Ÿ People act by virtue that they are alive, and try to remain so by anticipating and controlling whatever happens to us, we must figure out what is happening in our lives and how to handle it Ÿ This view of people is that all people are some kind of naïve scientist to understand, predict and control things in our lives, we are developing a naïve theory about the way the world works Ÿ Consists of constructs/concepts, categories that help represent the world, individuals use personal concepts to represent their lives Ÿ Personal processes are psychologically channelized/organized by the ways in which he or she anticipates results (by categorizing the world around us and mentalized representations of it) Ÿ Awhole range of qualifications that come after that, qualification s of fundamental process, or elaborations Ÿ The first is the presumption of individuality, everyone personal develops a unique construct system, your own basic view of the world, own categories for making sense of things, and will be different from others (unique, ideographic) Ÿ The second qualification is Kelly expects constructs to be bi-polar, either in one category or another, for e.g. when you
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