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3F03 Jan 10 Lecture.docx

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Paul W Andrews

January 10 3F03 Recap • Evolutionary definition of disorder involves an adaptation that is not operating as it evolved to function • Reverse engineering process is useful in understanding both adaptation and disorder • Missing info** Implications • This is a strict definition of disorder • Sometimes conflicts with medical use of the term o Some physicians and clinicians consider “disorder” to be any condition that warrants treatment (not what we’re talking about) According to evolutionary definition, we are much less certain about what is and isn’t a disorder o Depression, anxiety, PTSD, anorexia, substance abuse o Schizophrenia seems like it is a disorder, but we don’t know what the adaptation is that is malfunctioning Accurately distinguishing between normally functioning adaptation and disorder (malfunctioning adaptation) has important treatment implications • i.e. fever Therefore, the issue is not whether to treat; it is how best to treat • If normally functioning adaptationtreat the cause that triggered it (i.e. infection) • If true instance of disordersuppress harmful symptoms (i.e. fever) (clearly malfunctioning adaptation—triggers the disorder) o Treatment depends on whether it is a true disorder or just a response to an infection I.e. Depression • Symptoms to diagnose depression o If you could show that each of those symptoms coordinates a response to promote an analytical processing style  These symptoms are dealing with many realms and dramatically different  The empirical evidence may not rise to the standard of adaptation Why are we spending time on disorder? • Class is about using evolutionary theory to get insight into human behaviour • Human health and medicine is easily the domain where evolutionary theory yields the greatest insight According to psychiatry, humans have so many disorders they are falling apart. (Blanco et.Al, 2008) • Surveys young adults in the US • 18-24 • Using DSM diagnostic criteria and tried to see how many different disorders people in this age group have • They diagnosed it over the last year • About 45% of people have some sort of disorder o If you break it down by sex—males are higher than females o Ethnicity—most are coming from Caucasian o These numbers are staggeringly high… Why? What are these disorders? Substance use disorders: 30% Alcohol 17-20% Drugs 5-7% Nicotine 14-20% Mood disorders 11% Major depression 7% Bipolar 3-5% Anxiety disorders: 12% Panic 2-3% Social anxiety 3-4% Phobias 8-9% Pers
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