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3jj3 nov 28.docx

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McMaster University
Louis A Schmidt

PSYCH 3JJ3 – November 28, 2013 Chapter 14 Questions remaining - Models of development o Which ones? - Methods of development o Which ones? - Translating knowledge o “from bench to bedside” - o What is the most effective way of translating knowledge to practice? What we know: some take home principles - Social agents and contexts for social development o Social behaviour is influenced many social agents in multiple social systems  Family system- ex. parents, siblings  Larger social systems – ex. schools, communities, media, society o Need to specify how exposure to these agents who are embossed in multiple social systems after social development over time - Social behaviour varies across both situations and individuals o Although children behave differently in different situations, this does not mean that child behaviour is determined only by the situation o Children’s individual characteristics also matter o Our goal is to determine how individual differences among children modify the degree and form of their reactions to different situations - Social development occurs in a cultural context o In different regions of the world and communities within a country children have different experiences o Children require different social skills to become productive and accepted members of their cultural group o Observing the socialization of children across a variety of cultures and subcultures can be a source of insights about social development and a way to increase tolerance of cultural and ethnic diversity - Social development occurs in a historical context o Experiences differ across history according to  Economic conditions, lifestyle patterns, employment practices, and immigration demographics  Technological advances o Need to update our understanding of social development as the social world of children of different cohorts morphs over time - Some aspects of social development are universal o Social development is affected by universally shared achievements  Learning to walk and talk  Emotional expression  Biological preparedness for social interaction o Determining which aspects of social behaviour are universal and which are culturally determined (or specific) is a continuing challenge Progress and pathways of social development - Development may be gradual and continuous or rapid and dramatic o Both gradual and rapid changes contribute to social development o Rapid biological changes include  Growth spurts, changes in the brain (ex. prefrontal cortex), onset of puberty o Environmental changes that contribute include  School transitions, increased responsibilities (ex. voting, driving) o Non-normative experiences (ex. divorce, natural disasters) also contribute - Early experience is important, but its effects are not irreversible o Evidence from resilience and recovery research suggests the effects of early adverse experiences can be overcome o Continuity of problems from childhood to later years is most likely to result from continued adversity through childhood, not from an early adverse experience alone o The longer and more severe the adverse conditions, the more difficult it is to overcome negative effects - There is no single pathway to normal or abnormal development o Tracking abnormal developmental patterns (ex. autism) can teach us about certain aspects of social development o Understand social development in normal children can give us insights into how children with social problems cope and how we can help them - Tracing both normative pathways and individual pathways is important o Age-related norms of social development are useful guides for knowing what to expect of children at certain ages o Recognizing and tracking the variety of individual developmental trajectories is important as well -
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