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3jj3 sept 24.docx

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Louis A Schmidt

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Hemisphere lateralization - Has a genetic component o Parents and children have similar levels of language lateralization - Begins early in life but because not complete younger children have greater brain plasticity o I left hemisphere damaged in infant, child can still develop almost normal language ability - Even adults have plasticity The social Brain - These brain regions are involved in social functions that range from recognizing faces to bodily gestures to evaluating what other people are thinking or feeling, predicting what they are about to do and next, communicating with them - Regions include medial prefrontal cortex, etc (see textbook) How the social brain develops - All regions in the adult social brain show partial responses in infancy o Example: prefrontal regions are activated when babies process faces but mature response not seen until age 1 o Suggest that the brain is adapted to develop within a social context and that this context contributes to specializations in the adult cortex - Activation in the mPFC decreases in late childhood adolescence and is replaced by activation of specialized subregions of the mPFC in adults - In addition to becoming more specialized, the different cortical regions of the social brain become orchestrated into networks as development proceeds Genetics and social development - Gene – a portions of dna location at a particular site on a chromosome and coding for the production of a specific type of protein - Human behaviour genetics – the study of the relative influences of heredity and environment on individual differences in traits and abilities - Heritability factor- statistical estimate of the contribution heredity makes to a particular trait - Genotype- particular set of genes a person inherits from his or her parents - Phenotype- visible expression - Genetic transmission o Chromosomes located in the nucleus of each cell o Genes located on particular sites of the chromosome o Gene activated – copy of gene travels from cell nucleus to body of the cell where it serves as a template for building a protein molecules Genetics and Social Development: Methods of Studying Genetic contributions to development - Adoption studies o Compare adopted children to biological parents (genetic connection) and adoptive parents (environmental connection) - Twin studies o Compare similarities between identical twins (100% genes shared) and fraternal twins (50% genes) o Monozygotic – single zygote splits in half o Dizygotic – two different eggs o If monozygotic show more resemblance than fraternal  trait largely due to genes o If equal, assumed to be largely due to environment - Shared environment – set of conditions experienced by children raised in the same fam - Non shared – set of conditions or activities experienced by one child but not the other child of the same family - Identical twins may have more shared environments than fraternal - Fraternal may have more nonshared experiences than identical - Studying genetic contributions to development o Lessons learned from the human genome project  Have mapped and sequences about 20 thousand protein coding genes  Don’t know what all these do or how the contribute to human characteristics  M
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