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Oct 24 - Chapter 9 - PSYCH 3M03

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Aadil Merali Juma

WEEK 10 PSYCH 3M03 Chapter 9: Anger, Hate and Aggression October 17, 2013  Threat – shows intention to follow through with aggression, could be bluffing  Rage – amygdala and hypothalamus o Baring of the teeth o Social animals do not have musculature to show certain facial expressions  Fear – most ancient in terms of evolutionary conservation; conserved neural circuits in hypothalamus, amygdala and autonomic responses  Aggression – fighting; beyond threat; same sort of fighting across mammals (use of the teeth, ramming of head, boxing) o Sexually dimorphic – rats, humans, vertebrates  more among males  Forms of Aggression o Predatory aggression – usually directed at other species to obtain food  Motivation – food; usually another species, cannibalism can occur o Intermale Aggression – within species, competing for limited resources (eg/ food, mates)  Related to territorial aggression – each have own dynamic, but interrelated with overlap  Polygyny common among mammals sets the stage for differential and reproductive success amongst males; differential is established by threat and aggression  Males being chased away from harems of females by another male (baboons, rhesus monkeys, gorillas etc)  Accounts for evolution of intermale aggression – aggression against other males leads to gains in reproduction and characteristic gets propagated o Territorial Aggression – protecting specific territory, chasing trespassers away, boundary marking  Same type of dynamic as intermale aggression – often males hold territories and fend off intruders o Defensive Aggression – defense of self, kin, territory  Females and males  If attacked by a male, female will show whole range of aggressive behaviour in defense  Will attack in defense of kin o Maternal Aggression – protection of young by mother o Irritable Aggression – induced by frustration or pain  At least anger will be shown by frustration (non-reward; reward expected but do not receive it) o Instrumental Aggression – dispassionate, learned, developed via conditioning, influenced by rewards  Neurologically, behaviorally complex; intelligent  Elicited by passion, occurs view calculated aggression  Eg/ if I kill, I will get a reward  Dominance and Subordination o Dominance is associated with controlling resources and/or hierarchal control within a group o Results from competitive interactions that are aggressive in nature or threatening o Threat and appeasement are more common than outright violence  Threat gestures – posture, angry facial expression, barking, “hate stares”, rushing, self maximizing postures (eg/ piloerection maximizes appearance)  Appeasement – self minimizing postures, withdrawal, female sexual postures, species-specific gestures (eg/ exposure of neck in wolves, smiling in humans)  Subordinate males may begin starting sexual postures (eg/ in baboons) o Alpha males that are polygynous – other keep respective distance or may give them things to appease them o Non-alpha males are usually excluded from the group o Eg/ Gorillas - ~3 males and 6-7 females; one alpha male who mates frequently, other males do not mate, waiting for alpha male to die; juvenile male and females; all other adult males have been excluded o Less stressful to be subordinate o Dominance is situation specific – alpha male may not always be alpha male  Sex Differences in Aggression o Males are usually more aggressive than females  Eg/ bulls vs. cows; stallions vs. mares  Seen in humans beings; seen in juveniles across species (developing boys demonstrate play fighting) o This is seen in mammalian species including humans o Reflected in rough and tumble play in children o Testosterone perinatally and at puberty correlated with higher levels of aggression in many species (eg/ red deer, elephants, cats, mice, rats etc) o Castration will reduce or even eliminate intermale aggression in many species (eg/ cats, rats, mice, horses, cattle) o Female mice injected with testosterone perinatally and given repeated doses through adulthood  male levels of aggression 1 WEEK 10 PSYCH 3M03  Humans o Connection between testosterone levels and human aggression is not clear o Aggression in boys does not consistently change at puberty o Individuals can have very high T but not be aggressive, or low levels and be aggressive o T related more to social dominance than aggression o Sex and Age of Homicide Victims  Canada  Victims of homicide ages and sex  More commonly male victims  Peak around most reproductive years – not including infants o Infants often killed by mother or other males (more often not the father; may be male with relations to the mother who is not the father)  Mexico  Differential between males and females Trend more stark than Canada  More commonly male victims
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