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November 15 Lecture Notes; Week 12 - Nov 14, 15 - Chapter 11 - PSYCH 3M03

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Aadil Merali Juma

LECTURE 12 PSYCH 3M03 Chapter 11: Love and Attachment November 14, 15 2013  Harlow’s 3 Types of Attachment o Maternal–Infant  Mammalian; resemblance to some other vertebrates  Most fundamental social bond of mammalian nature o Peer-Peer  Social primates; interactions between individuals around the same age o Heterosexual  Not found in most primates, beyond mating  Social species – some have bonds with their mates Maternal-Infant  Conserved across species  Altritial mammals – born helpless; K-selected complex species  Precotial mammals – born on their feet; maternal-infant doesn’t last as long Two perspectives: mother vs. infant  Stereotyped across species; crying (proximity promoting), clinging; FAPs o Eg/ Mice will cry out, mother will gather them into groups to keep them warm o Kissing – giraffes, dogs (licking), rat pups (licking; the more licked, the better the long term health of the infant)  Other family members o Paternal bond also in many humans  However, males cannot nurse  asymmetrical by nature  Seen in lions, loved, orcas, hyenas  Historically – the male role has been more indirect; female role more direct (nursing and nurturing) o Other kin may be involved (eg/ siblings, grandparents, aunts, uncles) o Extended families are common among humans and also seen in other species (eg/ lions, wolves, orcas, hyenas)  Two perspectives – mother vs. infant  Infants Attachment to Caregiver o Phase: 0-3 months  Nursing – reflexes that include rooting and suckling (motor movement is ancient; every nursing mammal)  Proximity promoting – crying is relieved by being picked up, elicits reflexes in the mother (milk production, changes hormones of mother when hear own child cry); grasping reflexes  Positive and negative affect – can show contentment  Crying, clinging, cooing, facial displays, touch, eye contact  Pre-attachment, indiscriminate – infant doesn’t know his (inferred) mother yet; behaviour is stereotyped and reflexes  Easiest time to cross foster, adoption, adapt to new caregiver o Phase 3: 3-5 months  Infants progressively develop attachment in response to care, feeding, reduction of discomforts  Discriminates faces, smiles to familiar - can discriminate babies thoughts through their affect o Phase 3: 6-7 + months  Clear attachment to mother  Proximity seeking – clings, moves nearer  Bases self around mother in exploration  Crawling occurs to move around and explore; explore around mother  Separation anxiety and fear of strangers – discriminative  If mother is out of sight – distress is shown; affect is richer in infancy o Phase 4: >12 months  Multiple attachments – father, older siblings, grandparents, sitters  Attachment to father at this time and much earlier if he was actively involved o Does not describe many other animals – sheep (mother imprints on infant; many births of different individuals on the same day; mother must be able to distinguish own child; oxytocin); herbivores that live in groups; birds (imprint on mother figure), mice  Orphaned chimp and human – same postures; self rocking, clinging, self-hunched; self-injurious (eg/ head banging) o Blind babies react as so signed ones  Maternal Attachment to Infants o Many hormone changes after birth; placenta has been ripped from the boy, which was secreting many hormones 1 LECTURE 12 PSYCH 3M03  Eg/ prolactin drastically decreases after birth; oxytocin and prolactin surges after birth (have impact on maternal behaviour) o Where infanticide/abandonment occur; usually prior to nursing o Skin to skin contact, pheremonal contact; suggested to be a steroid hormone secreted from breast area that draw infant o Attachment to infant is progressive and becomes very firm o Lactation, nursing, hormones o While humans do not have imprinting (eg/ sheep) initial skin to skin contact immediately after birth is associated with positive attachment later o Progressive meshing – mutual eye gaze, smiling, “baby-play act”, vocalization, imitation o Blind babies react as do sighted ones o Hormones and Maternal behaviour  Progesterone drops pre birth – MAO, may be involved with affect; changes in hormones can cause behavioural and mood changes, post partum depression  Oxytocin in birth – role in bonding; present in sexual climax (promotes sperm uptake into the uterus)  Cycling suspended  Prolactin promotes milk production – prolactin plays a role in maternal behaviour  Injection will not cause maternal behavior; inject into CSF and get some effect, but it takes experience  Oxytocin stimulates milk ejection  Oxytocin in hypothesized to play role in bonding  Role of prolactin in maternal behaviour interacts with experience o Maternal behaviour – experience interacts with hormones  In lab rats, experiences mothers show maternal behaviour much more readily, regardless of hormones  Prolactin injected into brain promotes nurturance in virgin rats  Blood transfusion from parturient female to virgin female can induce maternal behaviour in the virgin  Whole blood is necessary to have female virgin with maternal behaviour – must be whole profile of blood-borne signals involved  Variety of blood-borne signals act synergistically o Neural circuitry and maternal behaviour  The medial (~dorsal) POA is critically involved in maternal behaviour in rats  Neurons are very active  POA Interconnections with other areas – olfactory inputs, output to motor systems, monoamine systems (ventral tegmentum)  Lesion in lab rat – will not show normal maternal behaviour o Paternal Bond  Less reliable and more variable even in species with biparental care (eg/ humans)  Paternity confidence is an issue – if there is a risk of cuckoldry, it reduces males interest in bonding (do not want to care for children that is not their progeny)  Contribution to care may be indirect  Role of care may increase with age Sibling and Peer Affectional System  Siblings o Rivalry and mutual support are both common o Competition for resources r of0.5 (0.25 – half siblings) o First and more likely playmates o Jealousy for maternal affection observed in very young o Inter-sibling aggression very common, usually non-injurious o Mutual support seen in all
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