Class Notes (836,216)
Canada (509,690)
Psychology (5,217)
PSYCH 3M03 (35)

November 21 Class Notes Week 13 - Chapter 12 - PSYCH 3M03.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Aadil Merali Juma

WEEK 13 PSYCH 3M03 Chapter 12: Motivation to Learn November 19, 2013  Exploration o Most animals explore new environments o Food, water, shelter, possible dangers must be sought out and evaluated o Individual differences  Eg/ High vs. low activity in mice  Eg/ Exploration vs. defecation (defense) o Information is critical for coping o Has a genetic component – can select for exploration  Play o Seen in many mammalian species, especially K-selected – primates, carnivores, marine mammals, even ungulates and rodents o Vaguely defined as inefficient behaviour without apparent immediate direct benefit or clear goals  Tends to resemble behaviour that is adaptive in adults; eg/ wrestling o Critical in development o Predatory animals have more capacity for learning; more play o Rodents – primitive forms of play o Evolved and deep rooted; tweaked in humans o Eg/ Rat play posture to quantify rough-and-tumble play  Dorsal Contacts – posture; resembles adult sexual behaviour (mounting)  Pins – play fighting among peers; scratching and biting does not occur  Adaptive Value and Play o Cost  Energy expenditure  Risk of injury  Possibly attracts predator attention o Benefits  Strengthens muscles  Potentiates social learning – competition, emotional expression  Multiple skill acquisition o Lesioning the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) will reduce play behaviour (not eliminate) o Large lesions to the hippocampus, the amygdala, the cerebellum, the lateral hypothalamus will all reduce play behaviour (not eliminate) o Removal of the neocortex will reduce but not eliminates play o Rhesus monkeys display a “play face” before engaging in aggressive rough and tumble play o Posturing, wrestling, chasing and avoidance serve as practice for adult life – dealing with predators and conflict within group  active learning o Some primates (especially humans) incorporate tool use in play  Simple Learning o Habituation – repeated exposure to a stimulus tends to lead to reduced responses to that stimulus o Sensitization – when repeated exposure to a stimulus produces enhanced responses to the stimulus  Especially seen in trauma; erring om the side of caution o Classical Conditioning – when a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a stimulus (US) that elicits a response (UR), the neutral stimulus (CS) can come to elicit a response (CR) on its own  Affects the way time of day affects appetite, poison avoidance  Instrumental/Operant Conditioning o Reinforcement o Intermittent Reinforcement o Negative Reinforcement – behaviour that terminates an aversive stimulus will recur o Punishment – when an aversive stimulus follows a behaviour, the incidence of that behaviour may decrease o Extinction – if a response is no longer reinforced, the response will eventually decrease in frequency until it does not occur o Animals learn to repeat responses that result in favorable outcomes and do not repeat responses with unfavorable outcomes  Electrical Brain Stimulation – inhibitory and reward mechanisms in brain o Rats prefer regions of cage where electrodes deliver mild pulses to brain o Electrodes implanted in brain core; near hypothalamus and MFB o Skinner Box – press the bar, get the shock  animals began pressing at high rates; ~1000 bar presses/hour; higher rates than that of a food reward 1 WEEK 13 PSYCH 3M03 o Animals work for brief pulses of electricity o Very high rates of response o Rapid extinction o Can exclude or stimulate feeding, drinking o Demonstrated in all species examined including monkeys, cats, humans o Physiology of EBS Reinforcement  Various sites at work  Some interact with food and water deprivation  Highest rates in lateral hypothalamus; region traverses by the medial forebrain bundle (MFB)  Anti-dopamine drugs block reinforcement  Amphetamine’s, cocaine – enhanced responses; put thin tube providing a channel to give microinjections, animals will bar press for that  Ventral Tegmentum (midbrain)  MFB  nucleus accumbens (septum)  Intervene at nucleus accumbens with anti-dopaminergic drugs – response is blocked  Ancient conserved mechanism  Local interference with dopaminergic systems disrupt electrical brain reward  Physiology of Reinforcement o Consummatory behaviour (eating, drinking, sex) associated with increased dopamine activity in nucleus accumbens septi o This area is critical o Study is broader now – people looking into striatum o Oxytocin receptors clustered in this area – implicated in bonding, which related to reward o EBS in MFB also does so o Rats avidly administer amphetamine directly to nucleus accumbens  Cocaine and Amphetamines block reuptake of dopamine into presynaptic neuron and bind with DA transporter (Amphetamines go back into synaptic vesicle; worse) o Consensus that dopamine systems involved, but may just be part of larger system  Brain Control o Delgado and others have attempted to control behaviour through electrical impulses applied to various locations o Humans (clinical cases) with implanted electrodes generally report pleasure from EBS to various limbic sites o Other areas of the brain eg/ lateral hypothalamus – electrodes are aversive, not pleasure  Conditioned Reinforcement o Primary reinforcer – stimulus that naturally rewards behaviour (eg/ food, water, sexual partner, various increased comforts) o Conditioned reinforcer – formerly neutral stimulus that acquires a capacity to reward behaviour through a history of pairing with primary reinforcement  Token Economies – conditioned reinforcers, learning was involved  Convertible stimuli – money, grades, symbols o Money means nothing to a toddler, but quickly learn that money is convertible to other things o Grades mean a lot to many people and control behaviour  Tokens that we understand to be convertible to an
More Less

Related notes for PSYCH 3M03

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.