Lecture January 22
2 of 4 essay questions
5 short answer questions (one or two sentences)
You should be writing well-constructed paragraphs—not point form, and not rambling, not just
get down everything you can think of. It is better to write less if you’re going to write jargon.
You can LOSE marks by including extra irrelevant stuff.
An answer will probably take about one page, although it is absolutely possible to get full marks
in less, and it is also allowable to write more.
Best way to study will be to come up with the kinds of questions you think I might ask, and
actually practice writing your answers.
It is too hard to try and organize your thoughts for the first time in the exam—that organization
needs to happen during study.
When you are thinking about your answers, think about the EVIDENCE for various positions.
Not so much WHO did stuff, but WHAT facts and findings are relevant.
You should be reading your textbook with an eye for how the arguments go. Why did people
think this?And then why did they change? –the overall ideas and arguments is the point
For some questions, you may be asked your opinion.
You make be asked to “critically evaluate” something.
• You lay out both sides of the position and then express some kind of opinion
• Evidence of this and this—evidence seems to be stronger towards this rather than this
Focus is not on things that aren’t important.
What are the important questions?
• Over the last 4 years—explosion of research
• Working up to the fact that most of the world are bilingual
• Code-switching: how do you switch languages?
• Cognitive differences between monolingualism and bilingualism
• How does translation occur?
• How does age make a difference? Types of Bilingualism
Weinrich (1953) Compound Bilingualism (doesn’t work very well anymore)
Concept L1 word or L2 word (language words—pull which is convenient)
Concept 1L1 word
Concept 1L1 word
Concept 1L1 wordL2 word
These categories don’t work very well!
Ways to grow up bilingual
Expected in some communities
• Both language at home all the time
• L1 community, but L2 from some family members (or TV)
• L1 at home, then L2 at school
Better way to think about it:
• Simultaneous (always had 2 languages—couldn’t even say which one came first)
• Early sequential (learned one first but then early as a child you learned the second one)
• Late sequential (learned one first but then later in adolescence or adulthood you learned
the second one)
o People are good at learning languages
o People who are bilingual are amazing
Machine translation: useful problem to be able to solve—google translate is not good—
computers are terrible—human brains do this much better
Ie: “His youthful years were not easy”—the time of its giovenezza has not been easy—not she
was soft does the stop at the time of the her youth
• Read textbook
Costs and Benefits
Big issue—interference between L1 and L2
Obvious that late L2 gets a lot of interference from L1
Crucially, L2 interferes with your L1 a little too In immigrant children better learning of L2 comes at the expense of reduced speed of access to
• Bilinguals are more likely to experience tip-of-the-tongue states than monolinguals
(gollan et al 2005) (but only on items that have words in both languages, not proper
names, and words that are cognates help)
• Bilinguals are slower and picture naming than monolinguals but equally fast at saying
whether it is “natural” or “human-made”.
• Generally, bilinguals have twice the processing load of monolinguals. It is like having a
larger vocabulary full of lower frequency (less common) words.
• The processing is slower because you have less practice with both
For children, very early when learning two languages simultaneously, the two languages mix up,
but then children learn to separate them.
• Controversy—some say no costs to early bilingualism—children learn both languages
just as fast, just as easily
• Others DO find some measures of delays (especially syntax, -Gatercole 2002)
“monolingual-like attainment in each of a bilingual’s two language is probably a myth (at any
age) Harley & Wang (1997)
• Gain in metalinguistic awareness (helps reading especially)
• Some cognitive advantages (e.g. work by Bialystok and colleagues)
• Bilinguals (both kids and adults) have better attention and cognitive control (especially
task-switching ability) than monolinguals.
It becomes the process of telling the other language to “shut up”
• Being a lifelong bilingual delays onset of dementia by 4 years
• Advantage to task switching/ executive control
• Especially in low-income minority children (deAbreu et al. 20