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Lecture 2

PSYCH 1F03 Lecture 2: Classical Conditioning - Module Notes
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Psychology
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PSYCH 1F03
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Joe Kim

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Module Notes - September 18, 2017
Classical Conditioning
Pavlonian Condition - another word for this due to Ivan Pavlov
Discovered that dogs salivate before food even enters their mouth as if it was an early
step in the process of digestion was triggered even before the food stimulus arrived.
-
He got a dog used to feeding after the sound of a metronome. Before, the sound of this
had no effect on the dog. But after the dog got used to feeding after the sound, it began
to salivate every time it heard this sound because the idea of food would come to mind
and this was what the brain got used too.
-
Pavlov was technically studying a contingent relationship: the presentation of one
stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. Ex; you see a flash of lightning
before the crash of thunder.
-
When an organism learns the association between a signal and an event, we say that a
contingent relationship has formed between the two stimuli
-
When a contingent relationship is learned, an organism can respond to the signal before
the event even occurs. This is often prepatory in nature and can promote survival. Ex; it
makes sense to salivate in anticipation of arriving food because it can make digestion
more efficient.
-
Ex; eating a strawberry can cause an allergic reaction so the brain knowing this will cause
you to avoid an allergic reaction
-
Imagine placing a a slice of lemon in your mouth. Immediately, your mouth puckers and
begins to salivate.
-
This can serve two purposes; to neutralize the citric acid from the lemon and prepare the
body for digestion. The idea of it causes your mouth to water due to previous experiences.
-
Unconditional Response (UR):
The physiological response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus
-
Occurs naturally, prior to any learning
-
Programed reflex
-
Ex; the salivation of a lemon
-
Conditional Stimulus (CS):
Paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency
-
Eventually triggers response on its own
-
The sight and smell of a lemon becomes a CS after being repeatedly paired with the CS of
placing the lemon in your mouth.
-
Conditional and Unconditional Stimulus (CS & US)
The conditional stimulus typically appears before the unconditional stimulus.
-
The US may take several trials of training in which the stimuli are paired before the CS
alone elicits a response.
-
When this occurs, the organism has earned a contingent relationship between the two
stimuli.
-
Conditioned Response (CR):
The response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned
-
Ex; Image of a metronome leading to salivation
-
Similar to the UR
-
*US > UR Relationship is NOT learned
*CS > CR Relationship IS learned
UR = Seeing food / salivating
US = food
CS = a ringing bell
CR = expecting food / salivating
Acquisition
The process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned
-
Ex; rats avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia)
-
When eating unfamiliar foods rats eat small quantities at a time so they can pick out which
food causes their illness and avoid it from now on
-
CS
As long as the CS continues to be a reliable cue for the US, the contingency will be
maintained. However, if conditions change such that the CS is no longer a reliable cue, the
CR will eventually fade.
Extinction:
The loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US
-
Spontaneous Recovery
- The sudden recovery of a conditional response following a rest period after extinction
Stimulus Generalization:
The process by which stimuli similar to the CS will also elicit a CR
-
Ex; the war triggered fear of bomb whistles even though the whistles were all different
depending on kind, distance and weather
-
Ex; you are bit by a lab as a child, now labs still scare you but so do other dogs, even
though you were not bit by those other dogs.
-
Generalization Gradient: you might be scared of a lab, but your fear will decrease
depending on if the dog breed triggers you or not (ex; a shih-tzu might not scare you)
-
US
UR
CR
Classical Conditioning -Module Notes
September 18, 2017
9:31 PM
Module Notes - September 18, 2017
Classical Conditioning
Pavlonian Condition - another word for this due to Ivan Pavlov
Discovered that dogs salivate before food even enters their mouth as if it was an early
step in the process of digestion was triggered even before the food stimulus arrived.
-
He got a dog used to feeding after the sound of a metronome. Before, the sound of this
had no effect on the dog. But after the dog got used to feeding after the sound, it began
to salivate every time it heard this sound because the idea of food would come to mind
and this was what the brain got used too.
-
Pavlov was technically studying a contingent relationship: the presentation of one
stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. Ex; you see a flash of lightning
before the crash of thunder.
-
When an organism learns the association between a signal and an event, we say that a
contingent relationship has formed between the two stimuli
-
When a contingent relationship is learned, an organism can respond to the signal before
the event even occurs. This is often prepatory in nature and can promote survival. Ex; it
makes sense to salivate in anticipation of arriving food because it can make digestion
more efficient.
-
Ex; eating a strawberry can cause an allergic reaction so the brain knowing this will cause
you to avoid an allergic reaction
-
Imagine placing a a slice of lemon in your mouth. Immediately, your mouth puckers and
begins to salivate.
-
This can serve two purposes; to neutralize the citric acid from the lemon and prepare the
body for digestion. The idea of it causes your mouth to water due to previous experiences.
-
Unconditional Response (UR):
The physiological response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus
-
Occurs naturally, prior to any learning
-
Programed reflex
-
Ex; the salivation of a lemon
-
Conditional Stimulus (CS):
Paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency
-
Eventually triggers response on its own
-
The sight and smell of a lemon becomes a CS after being repeatedly paired with the CS of
placing the lemon in your mouth.
-
Conditional and Unconditional Stimulus (CS & US)
The conditional stimulus typically appears before the unconditional stimulus.
-
The US may take several trials of training in which the stimuli are paired before the CS
alone elicits a response.
-
When this occurs, the organism has earned a contingent relationship between the two
stimuli.
-
Conditioned Response (CR):
The response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned
-
Ex; Image of a metronome leading to salivation
-
Similar to the UR
-
*US > UR Relationship is NOT learned
*CS > CR Relationship IS learned
UR = Seeing food / salivating
US = food
CS = a ringing bell
CR = expecting food / salivating
Acquisition
The process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned
-
Ex; rats avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia)
-
When eating unfamiliar foods rats eat small quantities at a time so they can pick out which
food causes their illness and avoid it from now on
-
CS
As long as the CS continues to be a reliable cue for the US, the contingency will be
maintained. However, if conditions change such that the CS is no longer a reliable cue, the
CR will eventually fade.
Extinction:
The loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US
-
Spontaneous Recovery
- The sudden recovery of a conditional response following a rest period after extinction
Stimulus Generalization:
The process by which stimuli similar to the CS will also elicit a CR
-
Ex; the war triggered fear of bomb whistles even though the whistles were all different
depending on kind, distance and weather
-
Ex; you are bit by a lab as a child, now labs still scare you but so do other dogs, even
though you were not bit by those other dogs.
-
Generalization Gradient: you might be scared of a lab, but your fear will decrease
depending on if the dog breed triggers you or not (ex; a shih-tzu might not scare you)
-
US
UR
CR
Classical Conditioning -Module Notes
September 18, 2017
9:31 PM

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Description
Classical Conditioning - Module Notes September 18, 2017 9:31 PM Module Notes - September 18, 2017 Classical Conditioning Pavlonian Condition - another word for this due to Ivan Pavlov - Discovered that dogs salivate before food even enters their mouth as if it was an early step in the process of digestion was triggered even before the food stimulus arrived. - He got a dog used to feeding after the sound of a metronome. Before, the sound of this had no effect on the dog. But after the dog got used to feeding after the sound, it began to salivate every time it heard this sound because the idea of food would come to mind and this was what the brain got used too. - Pavlov was technically studying a contingent relationship: the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. Ex; you see a flash of lightning before the crash of thunder. - When an organism learns the association between a signal and an event, we say that a contingent relationship has formed between the two stimuli - When a contingent relationship is learned, an organism can respond to the signal before the event even occurs. This is often prepatory in nature and can promote survival. Ex; it makes sense to salivate in anticipation of arriving food because it can make digestion more efficient. - Ex; eating a strawberry can cause an allergic reaction so the brain knowing this will cause you to avoid an allergic reaction - Imagine placing a a slice of lemon in your mouth. Immediately, your mouth puckers and begins to salivate. - This can serve two purposes; to neutralize the citric acid from the lemon and prepare the body for digestion. The idea of it causes your mouth to water due to previous experiences. Unconditional Response (UR): - The physiological response that occurs after the unconditioned stimulus - Occurs naturally, prior to any learning - Programed reflex - Ex; the salivation of a lemon Conditional Stimulus (CS):Classical Conditioning - Module Notes September 18, 2017 9:31 PM Module Notes - September 18, 2017 Classical Conditioning Pavlonian Condition - another word for this due to Ivan Pavlov - Discovered that dogs salivate before food even enters their mouth as if it was an early step in the process of digestion was triggered even before the food stimulus arrived. - He got a dog used to feeding after the sound of a metronome. Before, the sound of this had no effect on the dog. But after the dog got used to feeding after the sound, it began to salivate every time it heard this sound because the idea of food would come to mind and this was what the brain got used too. - Pavlov was technically studying a contingent relationship: the presentation of one stimulus reliably leads to the presentation of another. Ex; you see a flash of lightning before the crash of thunder. - When an organism learns the association between a signal and an event, we say that a contingent r
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