Ex; the salivation of a lemon
Conditional Stimulus (CS):
Paired with the unconditioned stimulus to produce a learned contingency
Eventually triggers response on its own
The sight and smell of a lemon becomes a CS after being repeatedly paired with the CS of
placing the lemon in your mouth.
Conditional and Unconditional Stimulus (CS & US)
The conditional stimulus typically appears before the unconditional stimulus.
The US may take several trials of training in which the stimuli are paired before the CS
alone elicits a response.
When this occurs, the organism has earned a contingent relationship between the two
Conditioned Response (CR):
The response that occurs once the contingency between the CS and US has been learned
Ex; Image of a metronome leading to salivation
Similar to the UR
*US > UR Relationship is NOT learned
*CS > CR Relationship IS learned
UR = Seeing food / salivating
US = food
CS = a ringing bell
CR = expecting food / salivating
The process by which a contingency between a CS and US is learned
Ex; rats avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobia)
When eating unfamiliar foods rats eat small quantities at a time so they can pick out which
food causes their illness and avoid it from now on
As long as the CS continues to be a reliable cue for the US, the contingency will be
maintained. However, if conditions change such that the CS is no longer a reliable cue, the
CR will eventually fade.
The loss of the CR when the CS no longer predicts the US
- The sudden recovery of a conditional response following a rest period after extinction
The process by which stimuli similar to the CS will also elicit a CR
Ex; the war triggered fear of bomb whistles even though the whistles were all different
depending on kind, distance and weather
Ex; you are bit by a lab as a child, now labs still scare you but so do other dogs, even
though you were not bit by those other dogs.
Generalization Gradient: you might be scared of a lab, but your fear will decrease
depending on if the dog breed triggers you or not (ex; a shih-tzu might not scare you)