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Lecture 2

PSYCH 1F03 Lecture 2: 2

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Joe Kim

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RESEARCH METHODS II: Working with Raw Data: Statistics allow one to summarize, interpret, and present the data we have collected. Descriptive Statistics presents info that gives an overall idea of the results of the experiment; mean, median, and mode. Histograms: o Visual summarizations of data (pie chart, bar graph); type of graph used to report the number of times groups of values appear in a data set. o Frequency Distribution type of graph illustrating the distribution of how frequently values appear in the data set. Shows data given every possible outcome of an event. In most cases, higher values are more frequent in the experimental group. A smooth curve that connects the peaks of each bar in a histogram. o Normal Distribution a distribution with a characteristic smooth, symmetrical, bellshaped curve containing a single peak. Shows data for a given measure. Measures of Central Tendency: o Mean: Tells us where a data set is centered; average value of a data set. Calculated by adding together all of the points in a data set and dividing by the number of items in the set. Influenced by Outliers extreme points, distant from others in a data set. o Mode: The value that appears most frequently in the set. Tells us one of the most typical responses when looking at a data set; can be used for nonnumerical data. o Median: Centre value in a data set when the set is arranged numerically. Says where the middle of the data set is, but is not influenced by an outlier. Measures of Variability: o Reviews the spread and distribution of a data set. o Standard Deviation a measure of the average distance of each point from the mean. SMALLER SPREAD = SMALLER SD
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