Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (650,000)
McMaster (50,000)
PSYCH (6,000)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,000)
Joe Kim (1,000)
Lecture

PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Observer-Expectancy Effect, Confounding, Standard Deviation


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim

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PSYCH 1X03
WEB MODULE 2: RESEARCH METHODS
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
Provides a seven step "recipe for how to collect and analyze info while trying to minimize
biases, conflicts or oversights
1. Theory: study existing info about the world which helps them develop theory ( general set
of ideas about the way the world works)
2. Hypothesis: set of testable statements; makes specific predictions about the relationship
between variables
3. Research Method: the way in which a hypothesis will be tested (experiment)
4. Collect Data: take measurement s of the outcome of the tests
5. Analyze Data: note any trends or relationships in the research ; leads them to accept or
reject hypothesis
6. Report the Findings: publishing articles in journals
7. Revise Theories: include new info into our understanding of the world
Paradigm shift: particularly dramatic change in our way of thinking
TESTING A HYPOTHESIS
Anecdotal evidence: evidence gathered from others or self experience
CONTROL GROUPS
Simplest experiments contain experimental and control groups
Experimental group: receive manipulation of the independent variable during experiment
Control group: will not receive manipulation of the independent variable
Participants in both groups should be as similar as possible
WITHIN-SUBJEC DESIGN
manipulating the independent variable within each participant to minimize the effect of
external variables on the dependant measure
tests the same subject repeatedly while manipulating the independent variable differently
Time consuming and costly
The measure we are using or subject could change over the course of experiment
Practice effect: subject's performance improves because they have become more
experienced
BETWEEN SUBJECTS DESIGN
One group of subjects receives manipulation and one is a control group
Subjects should be similar in every way except the manipulation
Confounding variable: variable other than independent that has an effect on the results
SELECTING SUBJECTS
Results from very specific groups of participants cannot be generalized to other groups
Population: the general group of people we are trying to learn about
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