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PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Reinforcement, Psych

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Hannah Holmes

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Instrumental conditioning – Psych lecture #4
Instrumental conditioning: Learning a contingency between a behaviour and its consequences.
What follows – increase/decrease the likelihood of the occurrence of that behaviour
Positive consequences/ negative consequences.
Contingency - behaviour + consequences
Type of Behaviour – Conscious/voluntary
Example: Study more frequently = if get better grades /
Increase behaviour : reward training/ removal of a negative reinforcer (escape training)
Decrease behaviour : presentation of a negative reinforcer/ removal of a postive reinforcer
oReward training : Positive reinforcement
oPunishment training: Adding a negative component
oEscape training: Emphasizing a negative reinforcement
oOmission training: Removing the positive stimuli. - remove the unpleasant factor from
the environment
oAutoshaping : Development of an instrumentally conditioned response occurs in the
absence of direct training.
oShaping by successive approximation : Involves reinforcing small steps toward a
desired behaviour.
Schedules of Reinforcement
oContinuous Reinforcement
Reinforced every trial
oPartial Reinforcement
Fixed ratio : reenforcing a specific #times
Exp. Get a gold star after reading 2 chapters (FR-2)
A classic trend of increasing response on the behaviour
Variable ratio : reenforcing after an interval amount of time (average)
Exp. Get a gold star after variable number of chapters that
centres around a given number (VR-2)
A consistent trend of increasing response (constant rate)
Fixed Interval : Reenforce after an amount of time (after a week)
Exp. A course that has quiz every 3 weeks. (FI-3)
Exp. Every 2 weeks you get an allowance
Specific pattern of response can be seen, #of responses can be
uneven per trial
Variable ratio : reenforce after an average amount of time
Exp. Course that has a pop quizzes (VI-2)
A consistent response as time increases, (continuously study
because don’t know when the next pop quiz will be)
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