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Lecture 6

PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Egocentrism

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Joe Kim

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Psych 1X03
October 6, 2014
Module 5: Problem Solving and Intelligence
Unit 1: Introduction
Operational Definition of Intelligence
Intelligence: whatever intelligence tests measure
Involves the ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from
experience and adapt (psychologist POV)
Understanding strategies used to solve problems to gain insight into human
Unit 2: Problem Solving
Deductive and Inductive Reasoning
Deductive: when a person works from ideas and general information to arrive at
specific conclusions
oIdea  conclusion
Inductive: works the opposite way. Moves away from specific facts and
observations to broader generalizations and theories
oFact  idea
Insight Problems: designed to test your ability to think outside the box
Functional fixedness: our difficulty seeing alternative uses for common objects
Unit 3: A History of Intelligence Testing
The Qualities of a Test
Reliability: produces the same result if one person takes it multiple times
oImportant for psychologists measuring any effect – especially for
intelligence, as they assume it is a static quality
oRepeated testing with same score
Validity: measures only the trait is supposed to be measuring
(E.g. Are course assessments measuring your understanding of course material, or
testing ability to memorize?)
Francis Galton
Goal to formally quantify intelligence in an unbiased manner
Researched how quickly subjects could respond to sensory motor tasks by their
rx. time (faster time  higher intelligence)
Alfred Binet: identify children who need special education
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