Class Notes (1,100,000)
CA (620,000)
McMaster (50,000)
PSYCH (6,000)
PSYCH 1X03 (1,000)
Joe Kim (1,000)
Lecture 1

PSYCH 1X03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Stroop Effect, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Intelligence Quotient


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1X03
Professor
Joe Kim
Lecture
1

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INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY
- Diverse field for human thought and behaviour
- Psyche = soul, logos = study of
- Previously based only on philosophy:
Ancient Greeks contemplated psychological
questions
Descartes mind-body dualism
- and on physiology:
Muller different areas of the brain serve different
functions; electrical impulses
Flourens lesioned animal brain to study function of
different regions
Helmholtz measured nerve impulse as 90 ft/s
- Psychology emerged as a formal science in 1879, as
Wundt opened first lab for studying the conscious
experience; first scientific journal in 1881
- Hall opened first lab in North America in 1883; founded
American Psychological Association in 1892 (world‟s
largest psych organization)
- Technologies & science allow direct links between brain
& behaviour
- Different levels in psychology‟s scientific method
- Pavlov taught dog bell tone as a cue for food
- BEHAVIOURISM had two schools of thought:
Structuralism studied structure & basic elements of
consciousness; method of introspection (observing
own experiences has bias)
Functionalism function of consciousness studied as
a stream
- Watson formalized methodology of learning research;
overt behaviour is only valid measure in psychology
Mind is off-limits „black box‟; what happens inside
mind is beyond science
Experimenting on environment determining behaviour;
nurture > nature
- Skinner mind cannot be measured; study laws of
behaviour instead; behaviour modification
- COGNITIVE REVOLUTION (1960s) studied internal
processes of mind (thought, attention, memory,
language, problem-solving); inferences from overt
behaviour
Brain is physical but mind is abstract; conscious &
unconscious processing generate thought and
behaviour
Uses models for abstract representations of how mind
functions; to simplify, explain, predict, experiment
- BECK‟S TRIAD THEORY depression arises from
maladaptive thoughts about self, world, future
- REDUCTIONISM behaviour can be explained by
biological mechanisms of the nervous system & brain
- Crick studied genetics; where does human
consciousness come from?
- NEUROIMAGING expose brain vs non-invasive x-ray/CT
Structural MRI physical content of brain
Functional MRI brain activity levels
- Influence of one-group, group-one, group-group
- Artificial group situations must consider ethical
standards in distress and deception
- How genetic and environmental factors & selective
pressure change behaviour
Developmental considers individual‟s lifespan
Evolutionary considers species‟ time span
- DEPRESSION social withdrawal
Learning caused by maladaptive behaviours, so
modify these behaviours
Cognitive negative schemas interpret new info
negatively, so modify negative thoughts
Neuroscience changes in brain (e.g. smaller
hippocampus), so drugs modify brain chemistry
Social negative effect of people‟s relationships (e.g.
alienation), so modify social bonds for support
Development negative genetic/environmental
factors (e.g. from parents or tragic event)
Evolutionary gene arose for depression to seek
social support for better survival
chenge3@mcmaster.ca
2010

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- SCIENTIFIC METHOD scientists objectively test hypotheses with data; to collect & evaluate info
- General set of ideas; e.g. factor X is somehow related to Y
BIAS
- ANECDOTAL EVIDENCE personal or others‟ single experience
Single experience may not represent general result
Single experience may not actually cause result
Personal experience may differ between others
- Testable statement; predicts strength & direction of manipulated independent variable on observed dependant variable
- OPERATIONAL DEFINITION defines a variable in terms of process or set of tests, to determine its presence and quantity
- Choosing type of testing and experiments
METHODS
- WITHIN-SUBJECTS DESIGN individual receives both controlled and manipulated tests of independent variable
- BETWEEN-SUBJECTS DESIGN control group receives no manipulation of independent variable; experimental group does
- OBSERVATIONAL STUDIES observing effect of variables w/o explicit manipulation (due to hard/ethical/practical concerns)
Correlation measure of strength/direction of relationship between 2 variables; uses correlation coefficient (r)
BIAS
- PRACTICE EFFECT improved experience/performance, within same subject
- CONFOUNDING EFFECT systematic difference between groups, other than independent variable
- CONFOUNDING VARIABLE irrelevant variable correlates with the dependent variable
Correlation is NOT causation; observational studies find correlation, but only scientific experiments can find causation
- Taking measurements of test outcomes
- SAMPLE subset of population; POPULATION general group of people
METHODS
- RANDOM SAMPLING subjects are chosen at random to reduce bias
- RANDOM ASSORTMENT chosen subjects are then randomly assigned control or experimental group
- BLINDING subject doesn‟t know if in control or experimental group
- DOUBLE-BLINDING experimenter doesn‟t know if subjects in control or experimental group
BIAS
- Results from very specific groups cannot be generalized to others; sampling must be correct
- PARTICIPANT BIAS “I‟m in this group, so I should get this result”; subject acts to influence results
Placebo effect subject wills outcome and exhibits response to something with no effect
- EXPERIMENTER BIAS “I know this group should have this result”; experimenter acts to promote results
- SOCIAL DESIRABILITY BIAS tendency to give socially approved answers
- RESPONSE SETS tendency to have a particular method of response
- Finding trends/relationships between variables
- DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS quantitative summary of results from an experiment
Central tendency (mean, median, mode); Variability (standard deviation)
E.g. pie graphs, charts, Venn diagrams, histograms (frequency of bins/groups of values occurring in data set)
Frequency distribution smooth curve connecting the bar peaks
Outliers extreme points distant from other values

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- INFERENTIAL STATISTICS using sample results to make inferences about overall populations
Normal distribution smooth, bell-shaped, symmetrical curve
If independent variable has an effect, experimental group curve shifts and becomes separate distribution
T-test determines p-value, probability of results due to chance; % probability getting same results w/o experiment
p > 0.05 not significant; p < 0.05 statistically significant difference between groups
- Report findings by publishing article in scholarly journal
- PARADIGM SHIFT change in way of thinking, causing the expansion of theories to include new information
- PARSIMONY when there are two valid theories, choose the simplest one
- NATURAL ORDER same root mechanisms; same effects to same causes
- GENERALIZABILITY same effects in labs as in real life situations
- CONSERVATISM scientists support current theory until new facts emerge to modify/abandon it
- EMPIRICISM & OBJECTIVITY knowledge based on observable, empirical data; not just reason
- LEARNING enduring change in behaviour, capabilities or knowledge due to experience
Non-associative learning changes in response, but not by reinforcement
Habituation decrease in response with familiarity
Dishabituation increased response following change in familiarity
Orientation focus of attention to unfamiliar, unexpected stimuli
Sensitization increase in response to repeated stimulus
- CLASSICAL CONDITIONING learning of a contingency between one signal and a biological event
E.g. allergies to protect body, saliva for efficient digestion, fleeing from sounds for survival
- Pavlov observed dogs would salivate even before food stimulus, a conditional reflex
Contingency association between one event/stimulus that predicts another
Contiguity presenting stimuli together in time and space for contingency to be made
CONDITIONAL STIMULUS (CS) bell tone
previously neutral stimulus; paired cue for US
UNCONDITIONAL STIMULUS (US) food in mouth
CONDITIONAL RESPONSE (CR) - saliva in mouth
learned contingency; preparing/expecting response
=
UNCONDITIONAL STIMULUS (US) food in mouth
UNCONDITIONAL RESPONSE (UR) saliva in mouth
no learning/training; UR is biologically programmed reflex or natural response
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