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Joe Kim (1,000)
Lecture 8

PSYCH 1XX3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Neurochemistry, Autism Spectrum, Dyslexia


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1XX3
Professor
Joe Kim
Lecture
8

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Lecture: Psychological Disorders
What is a Psychological Disorder?
-Past: evil spirits inside their heads – drill a hole in their skull to release them
-Today: Neurochemistry – action potentials
What is Abnormal Behaviour?
-Denition can change from decade to decade
- Social contracts are involved in all human aairs, including or collective
perceptions of our own minds
- Psychopathologies, from hysteria to depression, are not discovered, but
‘made’. They are decided upon
The 4 Ds: Deviance
-People with psychological disorders typically fall in the extremes
Distress, Dysfunction and Danger
- Distress: Intense negative feelings of sadness, anxiety, despair
- Dysfunction: Behaviour interferes with ability to function properly
- Danger: Behaviour is dangerous to self or to others
-If a condition meet all criteria, likely it can be considered a psychological
disorder
DSM: The Guidebook for Clinicians to Diagnose Mental Disorders
-4Ds of abnormality
-Clinical Consultation
-Advocacy Groups
-General Public
Each DSM has Signi(cant Changes
- Autism Spectrum Disorder
oDecits in social communication and social interaction
oRestricted repetitive behaviours, interests and activities
-People criticize this as broadening the critical diagnosis of ASD
-Huge jump in diagnosis
oUnderdiagnosed in the past
oEnvironmental changes – pressures, anxiety’s that are contributing
oToxins in the environment
Functional Signi(cance of “Disorder” is Relative to Context
-Extended lifespan – now open to new conditions aecting our health people
in the past did not face
-Dyslexia would be irrelevant in a preliterate society
De(ning Traits of Dyslexia
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