PSYCH 2AA3 Lecture 6: Lecture 6 - Information Processing

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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 2: INFORMATION PROCESSING
How does the mid manage/handle information?
How does information differ from adults and how does it mature?
OVERVIEW
The information processing model
oTheory of how we expect information should pass through our memory systems
oComputer analogy – Mental hardware and software with input devices, RAM, storage
and a central processing unit
Information processing in infants
Information processing in older children
oWorking memory capacity and efficiency
oDevelopment of strategy us
Extent and how we use strategies change
oRole of knowledge
INFORMATION PROCESSING MODEL
Starts with sensory input -> sensory memory -> attention/preference -> short term and working
memory <--> long term
Sensory memory
oRaw info is held. 0.5-3 sec
oRehearsal strategies are used here
oUnrehearsed info lost in 10-15secs
Short term/working memory
oSite of ongoing cognitive activity. Analogous to RAM. 10-15 sec
Long term memory
oLimitless, permanent storage of knowledge and skills
oKnowledge needed to comprehend incoming info
oStrategies (programs) exist for processing new info – have to reach back to STM
oRarely forgotten but sometimes hard to access
oAnalogous to hard drive
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Central Executive
oAnalogous to CPU or operating system
oResponsible for all the movement of information, execution of needed responses,
cognitive abilities and strategy selection for particular goals
Ex.: One hears new word. Auditory register (visual spatial sketchpad is equivalent for vision)
oIf you realise it’s a word, you select for it and process with short term/working memory
oIf you care you process with working memory
oUse info from long-term memory to deduce and comprehend new information
What does the word mean? Can I understand it and therefore store it in LTM?
oWith each word coming in, you infer meaning from LTM to understand sensory input.
INFORMATION PROCESSING IN INFANTS
Memory may be present at birth, but weak
oHabituation/dishabituation – can hold a memory trace for a few seconds
oClassical conditioning – Blass et Al, 1984
1-2 year olds. Sugar water was wiped on their lips, and stroke forehead right
after. After a couple of pairings, they associated sucking with forehead stroke.
Memory improves with age
oMobile studies – Rovee-Collier
Kicking associated with mobile toy movement
2 mo. – remembers for few days. 3 mo. – a week. 6 mos. – 22 days
oReactivation experiences
Bring baby back at about the time they’d be forgetting.
No training, just reminders by shaking mobile toy.
Baby is not giving the opportunity for relearning by being sat in a
different position.
Extends memory of the association.
BRAIN DEVELOPMENT
Initial memory storage (amygdala, hippocampus) – 6 to 24 months
Retrieval structures (frontal cortex) – 2 years
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OLDER CHILDREN & SHORT TERM MEMORY
Better strategies with increased knowledge base
Capacity of working memory increases.
oE.g. digit span, letter span, word span.
oAdults can recall about 5-7 items of memory
o2 y/o – 2-3 items. 11-12 y/o is almost adult level
Improved/quicker processing ability with experience and growth
oE.g. testing reaction times
More effective inhibitory processes and executive functioning
oBetter selection against irrelevant sensory input, supplemented with better planning
and cognitive ability
Increased automatic processing with experience
oactivities that require no effort
Mechanism
oNeural developmental
Synaptic pruning and myelination makes processing efficiency much more rapid
oExperience
At first numbers do not mean much, but with aging, items of info become more
relevant.
Leads to automaticity
E.g. multiplication tables drilling leads to automaticity in math. Alphabet
drilling leads to automaticity in language processing.
METACOGNITION
The ability to assess your own knowledge. Understanding when you don’t understand
something (i.e. thinking about thinking and how you think).
oTroubleshooting about learning and strategies, and finding solutions to these problems
Develops slowly throughout life up unto adulthood (frontal lobe development)
Metamemory
oInformal understanding of memory.
oInvolves troubleshooting memory problems and strategies
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