PSYCH 2AA3 Lecture 7: Lecture 7 - Intelligence

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COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 3: INTELLIGENCE
IQ Testing
OVERVIEW
What is Intelligence?
oDefinition varied as time passed
oMarch 2012: ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend
complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not nearly book learning a
narrow academic skill or test-taking smarts. It reflects a broader deeper understanding
of comprehending our surroundings for catching on and figuring out what to do
Not a measure of education, but a measure of what one would do with
education.
oThere are 2 aspects:
Crystallized Intelligence: Store of skills and knowledge about the nature of the
world, picked up over time
Fluid Intelligence: involves working memory. Ability to perceive relations among
stimuli and solve novel problems, not involving store of concrete knowledge.
How Intelligence is Measured
oPreviously measured by size of head/brain. False
oBinet Test and Modern Tests
Distribution of intelligence scores
Correlates of intelligence scores
oPrediction of social well-being
PSYCHOMETRIC THEORIES
Psychometricians – psychologists that measure psychological characteristics like intelligence and
personality
Involves administering tests to large number of people and seeing if variance trends move in a
cohesive fashion in order to determine changing factors
Charles Spearman’s G – general intelligence
The Thurnstones’ 7 unique abilities
Carrol’s hierarchical theories – intelligence of different levels of ranging specificity
GARDNER’S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE
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Refrained from test scores. Used case study research of various kinds of people
oBrain damaged people, exceptional skilled people, savants, child development, etc.
9 types of intelligence:
oLinguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, interpersonal,
intrapersonal, naturalistic and existential.
Other researcher’s: emotional intelligence
oUsing one’s and others’ emotions effectively for problem solving and happy living
Gardner believes that schools should foster all intelligences, and teachers should capitalise on
the strongest intelligences of individual children
STERNBERG’S THEORY OF SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE
Successful intelligence is revealed in pursuit of goals.
Goals vary between individuals and culture
Goals are achieved with:
oAnalytic ability – troubleshooting
oCreative ability – adaptively dealing with novel situations
oPractical ability – knowing plans that will or won’t work
Correlation of intelligences is seen. i.e. they are not completely separate
HISTORY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTING
Alfred Binet’s Test (1905+)
oTried to figure out a way to find problems who would have educational problems.
oObserved that children lagged behind in school
oCame up with tasks to figure out a series of problems for average children. Tasked
ranged in difficulty.
Each item was a task related to everyday knowledge/problems. Some other
items were about basic reasoning processes like classification and
understanding facts and relationships
oEach of these items got associated with a mental age
Mental age is the age that most people would be able to solve a particular task
oMental age vs Chronological age
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