PSYCH 2AA3 Lecture 5: Lecture 5 - Cognitive Development

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Oct 15
Evidence of Object Permanence - Baillargeon
Did a research on infants who were 4 and a half months of age. Habituated the infants until they lost
interest
She then took a box and let the babies play with before the habituation task. If babies have object
permanence, they should expect the fan to stop where the box is.
Some babies saw the fan stop were the experimenter placed the box. Some babies see the fan going
past the spot where the box was placed. Experimenter is interested in if babies dishabituate to the
impossible event.
Results: Nothing of interest happens during the impossible event. But become quite excited by
the impossible event. They found it interesting because they found it impossible, and they found
it impossible because they had object permanence. Babies have object permanence at 4 1/2
months of age.
Evidence of object permanence at 3.5 months
Habituates babies to look at a short carrot passed behind a screen an coming out the other side, and a
long carrot passing the screen and coming out through the other side. She also passed the short
carrot across a screen and nor see it through the window. She also passed the tall carrot through
through the screen, and it doesn't show in the window either. If babies understand object
permanence and properties of object, babies should dishabituate when the tall carrot doesn't show
up in the window.
Results:
Overall Evaluation of Stage 1
Only real critique is that Piaget may have underestimated stuff.
PIAGET’s STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
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What are operations
Operations are a special type of schema or mental structure that involves rules about objects that
make thinking more systematic and efficient than it would be without them. The younger ones that
have operations yet hence, they can’t seal with information really well.
PRE-OPERATIONAL STAGE
Strength of Pre-Operational Thought:
Symbolic Function
Refers to the ability to use one thing as a symbol to represent something else. More like thinking in
your head.
In the pre-op stage, we have the first use of Mental Schemes
Internal problem solving capabilities.
They start using language, as this is a mental scheme. Children could talk about things that are not
present before them, and this shows the have some mental representations.
Symbolic/pretend play: Pretend play is voluntary and directed by the player. Not very effective if
it’s imposed by adults or teachers. They should facilitate the play, but not dominate the play.
Symbolic function is important because it broadens our horizons, and facilitates social interactions.
We are also more efficient and quick in problem solving. It also enables us to think a lot more about
the present and the future. We can for memories and use them to guide our actions.
Weakness of pre-operational thought
Intuitive thinking
He thought that children, rather than thinking systematically through the evidence being presented to
them, they use their intuition and make a quick judgement on the information available, rather than
processing it, and this makes them solve problems inefficiently.
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