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Lecture 5

PSYCH 2AP3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: Peripheral Vision


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2AP3
Professor
Geoffrey Hall
Lecture
5

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Baby Human Series
Change over the lifespan
Qualitative changes are most salient
Early development follows a common course
Follows a coherent pattern
oCurrent level of functioning is connected to past and future development
Baby Human Series: Walking
Why is kicking at 3 months important?
Kicking is a stepping pattern for walking, just in a different position builds and strengthens the
muscles for actual walking
“Mobile” experiment: attaches ribbon from motor to babies legs
Baby kicks once or twice unintentionally, once she realizes the mobile moves she makes the
connection that her kicking makes the mobile dance and kicks get more and more intense
because baby learns she can direct her leg movements and control her environment learning
that intentional movements have an affect
At around 7 months, how does the baby maintain balance when researching?
Infants are top heavy, so they are prone to toppling over
Locate object in space, see if it is within reach
Learns to plan ahead, stabilize head and trunk and makes adjustment and reaches
Is a fear of heights innate? What prevents new crawlers from assessing danger?
No we develop a fear of heights
Experienced sitters know when the gap is too far
When baby is crawling he misjudges width and depth because the posture (of crawling) is
unfamiliar to him
Describe a visual cliff:
One half of glass surface looks solid, the other is transparent giving the illusion of depth
Babies are tested by being put on the “solid” side and called to the other side by their mothers
More experienced crawlers understand depth and is afraid of heights and won’t crawl across
Fear of heights is liked to the development of peripheral vision during crawling. How can this be
demonstrated?
Room example: put two infants with different experience in crawling into a moving room.
oNew crawlers don’t notice the walls beside them moving
oAt 9 months (more experience crawling) baby has more experience with peripheral vision
that helps them understand heights and they adjust their posture accordingly
Toy car example
oWhen trained peripheral vision in the car, they will learn to use their peripheral vision on
the visual cliff and will not crawl across every though they are new crawlers
What is emotional refuelling?
When a baby crawls further and further away from their mother they feel increased anxiety
They need so see their mother between crawling for emotional reassurance called emotional
refuelling
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