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Lecture 7

PSYCH 2C03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Social Exclusion, Relative Deprivation, Pole And Polar

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Jennifer Ostovich

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What is aggression?
- Intentional behavior aimed at someone to cause them pain
o Can be physical or verbal
o Not the same as assertiveness
o Intention must be stressed
- Hostile aggression: Act of aggression stemming from feelings of anger and aimed at inflicting pain or
o If player things team is playing dirty, may be angry and want to purposely cause pain
- Instrumental aggression: aggression as a means to some goal other than causing pain
o in football, must tackle other team, uses aggression, does not mean to inflict pain
Is aggression innate or learned?
- Some are convinced that aggression is an instinct, Others are certain it is a learned behavior
- Freud believed that humans are born with an instinct towards life and an equally powerful death
instinct, which leads to aggression
GENDER DIFFERENCES: Theories of aggression
Perspective: Sexual strategies Theory (SST)
- Men are more likely to be reported as aggressive than women
- Why are males more physically aggressive?
o Testosterone, in order to protect a family, jealousy, increased paternity certainty
- Gender differences in reproductive biology
o For men, they just have to get their sperm near an egg 9 months for woman, man = 3
seconds, you want to scare off other men to make sure woman is having only your baby
o Male male completion for mates, keeping men away from your woman
- Gender differences in relational aggression
o Females are more likely to act in relational aggression (gossiping, rumours etc.)
o Verbal bullying
o (female-female) competition for mates
o They want higher quality babies higher quality Mate who has resources; nice people; etc.
o Men have competition to get as many offspring as possible; women look for QUALITY of
Feminist perspective: social role theory (SRT)
- Gender differences are socialized, not innate
- If SRT is correct
Gender differences should:
o be small
o should begin after socialization begins
o Should increase with increasing socialization
o Should emerge when children are very young and not increase with socialization
o Should be largest during period of highest reproductive activity (late teens twenties)
Meta-Analytic Findings
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- Gender differences are largest for physical aggression
Eagly & Steffen (1986) on why from SRT perspective
- Found that women, when given the opportunity to be physically aggressive in a lab setting (shocking),
reported a lot of guilt ad aiet doig it; as opposed to e ho do’t
- Because women are acculturated/socialized to feel really bad when they are aggressive
Archer (2004) on why from SST perspective
- Found larger gender differences in physical aggression as expected
- Appear early and do not increase with socialization to masculine and feminine roles
- Gender differences in aggression peak between ages 18-30, then go down a bit
- When men become parents, testosterone levels decrease why decrease aggression as they get older?
- Gender differences in aggression are consistent across cultures
- More data to support the evolutionary SST than the feminist SRT
The frustration Aggression hypothesis (Miller and Dollard, yale group)
- If you become frustrated, you will inevitably become aggressive
- If you are aggressive, its because you were previously frustrated.
- Aggression is not controllable
Evidence? Heat and Aggression:
- Whe oe get hot, there’s ol so uh ou a do to ool
o ARCHIVAL DATA riots tend to happen on really hot days
Reitman et al 1991:
Likelihood of batters hit by pitcher on hot days was higher than
regular days
Kenrick & MacFarlane, 1986
- Horn honking behaviors when blocked from passing green light due to car in front not moving
- Research assistant driving standard car. Stopped @ red light. Green light driver does not move. (ONE
- Camera set up to see driver of car immediately behind
- Looked @ age and gender differences
- R = 0.34 as heat increases, longer honk time
- windows open r=.76 (A.C not on, very hot)
- windows close r=.12 (A.C on, not as hot)
Pain and aggression: Berkowitz et al (1981)
- IV: Pain
- DV: mean # of rewards/punishments given
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