Jan 6 SocPsych.docx

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Jan 6 SocPsy
Correlational studies
- How are 2 or more variables related?
o Is variable x related in some way with variable x?
- Methodologies used
o Surveys (little control and find no cause)
Personality correlated with behavior
o Pre-existing data
Elevation level and athletic achievement
Cloud cover and amount of rain
- Correlations - Positive Correlation / Negative Correlation/ Zero Correlation
o Correlations NOT EQUAL TO Causality
o The “Third Variable” Problem (Example: Ice cream sales go up and violent crime rates go
up. *Graph*) (it is ridiculous to think that ice cream makes people violent, if interpreted
through causality, then this would be true, but its wrong) (Looks to be correlated, but
there is a third variable. In this case, weather may be another variable which effects
result
- Experiments- Done in a lab setting under controlled conditions,(Cover stories(ex: milgrams
shock cover story*the deception*), confederates)
o IV(Independent Variable) manipulated by experimenter (ex: experimenter
manipulating temperature for different subjects result in different results)
o DV is measured by the Experimenter “The Conditions” (a random and equal chance of
the results with randomly assigned subjects.
o IV and DV are carefully defined
Operationalization (define, or specific definition of variables) (operationalization
“specify” cold as 10 degrees, hot as 11 degrees. Ex: milgrams experiment
shocking subject till the end of the experiment)
o SS are randomly assigned to conditions if between SS
o SS are randomly assigned to the order in which they are exposed to conditions if within
Ss
- Experiment Example: experiment on group brainstorming.
o Hypothesis: that Group brainstorming is not as good as being brainstorming alone due
to the interruptions.
o IV- operationalized conditions in which brainstorming occurs in different people who
came in.
Alone brainstorming
Group branstorming
Alone/interrupted
o Measured DV “performance”
Operationalized, as number, quality, and non redundant
Having blind rater, to rate how good the ideas are based on the experimenters
standard of GOOD IDEAS
o Data Chart
Alone Highest
Group average (basically the same as interrupted)
Interrupted- a little bit lower than average (basically the same as group)
Alone Groups have higher significant Good, and non redundant ideas
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Document Summary

Methodologies used: surveys (little control and find no cause) Personality correlated with behavior: pre-existing data. Correlations - positive correlation / negative correlation/ zero correlation: correlations not equal to causality, the third variable problem (example: ice cream sales go up and violent crime rates go up. *graph*) (it is ridiculous to think that ice cream makes people violent, if interpreted through causality, then this would be true, but its wrong) (looks to be correlated, but there is a third variable. In this case, weather may be another variable which effects result. Experiments- done in a lab setting under controlled conditions,(cover stories(ex: milgrams shock cover story*the deception*), confederates) Iv(independent variable) manipulated by experimenter (ex: experimenter manipulating temperature for different subjects result in different results: dv is measured by the experimenter the conditions (a random and equal chance of the results with randomly assigned subjects. Operationalization (define, or specific definition of variables) (operationalization. Specify cold as 10 degrees, hot as 11 degrees.

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