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Lecture 6

PSYCH 2C03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 6: Carl Hovland, People Everyday, Random Assignment


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 2C03
Professor
Jennifer Ostovich
Lecture
6

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Changing people's minds is perceived to be a difficult task, but there are certain techniques one
can use to temporary change things
Source - person giving the message to one or others ( Creditbility and Non-Verbal cues)
1.
Target - receiver, the person being given the message ( Non-verbal cues & Distraction)
2.
Message - content of message ( Mindlessness+ Target,
3.
Medium - medium through which the message is given
4.
4 components of persuasion:
Needed to sell the war with empirical evidence and support, to citizens and others
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Carl Hovland and colleagues conditions under which people are most likely to be
influenced by persuasive communications.
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They studied, " who says what to whom", looking at the source of the communication
(e.g... How attractive the speaker is, the quality of arguments)
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Study of persuasive communication is known as the Yale Attitude Change Approach
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The Yale Group ( Hovland et. Al)
Source Characteristics 1: Credibility
Two components of credibility- 1. Expertise and 2. Trustworthiness
Has no ulterior motive
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- is the expert and a well-known person in society
Sometimes the person
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Does source credibility always matter?
Two courses, one credible and one not credible
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IV: source credibility
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IV: time since delivery of message
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DV: persuasion, if they were persuaded or nah
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** control group were just asked questions
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High credibly message became less and less persuasive, and significant decreased
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Low credibility message become more and more persuasive
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Sleeper effect- any kind of delay between when you are given a persuasive message, to
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Hovland et al (1951) - brought several participants into the lab and a series of persuasive
arguments of medicine were presented
COGNITIVE APPROACHES TO PERSUASION
Wednesday, October 07, 2015
1:28 PM
PSYCH 2C03- Social Psychology Page 1

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Sleeper effect- any kind of delay between when you are given a persuasive message, to
when you see it again
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Association with the source and the message itself , connection between when and where
u read it becomes dissociated
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Thus, source is discredited due to
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Mullen et. Al - Body languages and gestures
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Being able to pick up on someone's body gestures ( eye contact, smiling, frowning)
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Mullen et al; took a bunch of clips of the news reporters talking about the presidential
report
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Got rid of the banner and audio, and muted it to a soundless image
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DV; positivity of facial expression form ( exterm. Negative ) 1 to 21 ( extrem. Positive)
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Tom Brokwaw/ NBC 11.20- 11.21
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Dan rather/ CBS 10.37- 10.46
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Peter Jennings
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Source characteristics 2: Non-verbal cues
Correlations showed that there was no causation, and may conclude that Peter Jennings
looked happy when talking about Reagan
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People are persuaded with sources that are confident and know what they are taking
about
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Nonverbal cues made viewers comfortable
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students came into the lab and received the unpopular talk, and there were controlled
conditions to each group
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Hear pro- tuition increase argument from $587-750
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IV: not moving head, shaking head and nodding head
DV: $$ Suggesting for next year's ugrad tuition
Wells and Petty- hear pro-tuition increase argument while:
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Not moving their head ( control group)
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Shaking head “no” ( Shake Group)
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Nodding head “yes” ( Nod group)
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DV: ask how much participants suggest to charge for next year's tuition
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Persuaded to increase tuition when the person nod’s their head “yes”
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Sometimes they’ll start mirroring your actions which may lead to the
persuasion
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Target characteristics 1: Non- Verbal cues ( Wells and Petty)
PSYCH 2C03- Social Psychology Page 2
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