Age of first child: delaying first child by ~4 years, going to school, getting extra education, putting career first. Reaction to first child: usually there are good reactions, satisfaction, self-worth, sense of accomplishment, the bad, stressful role to take on, have to change entire life structure. Parenthood and marital/personal happiness: decline when people have children, communication decreases centers around children, decrease in free time. Phases of marital happiness communication and satisfaction: first dip when having first child, larger dip when child is in teens, starts to increase when kids are in process of leaving, increases after children leave. Empty nest: go from being a full time parent of a dependent child to a part-time parent of an independent child. Becoming a grandparent: one of the most important roles during mid and late life satisfying. Addition of unpleasant roles: widowhood, especially common in women, caregiver of care receiver, feeling burdensome.