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Lecture 9

PSYCH 3B03 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Executive Functions, Attention, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity DisorderPremium

7 pages22 viewsFall 2018

Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 3B03
Professor
Vivian Lee
Lecture
9

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November 1st/2018
Lecture 9 Attention-Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder
DSM-5 Definitions
- 3 types of ADHD
o ADHD-Predominantly Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I)
o ADHD-Predominantly Hyperactive/Impulsive Subtype (ADHD-HI)
o ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-Combined)
- Diagnosis provided to those who:
o Symptoms are presented before the age of 12 years
o Symptoms are displayed for at least 6 months
o Behaviours go beyond that expected developmentally
o Impairment identified in social/academic functioning
o Symptoms must occur in at least 2 different settings
Features
- Primary Features
o Inattentive
o Hyperactive/Impulsive
- Secondary Features
o Motor Skills
o Intelligence
o Cognition (Executive Functioning Skills)
o Adaptive Functioning Skills
o Social Behaviour
o Sleep (lack of sleep)
o Accidents (very accident prone)
Inattention
- Parents and teachers often report that children who are inattentive:
o Jumps around from one task to another
o Does not attend to what is being said
o Is easily distracted
o Daydreams
o Has difficulty concentrating
- Children with ADHD pay less attention than their peers
o They have a reduced capacity for:
Selective Attention
Sustained Attention
- ADHD is very much a problem of control and self-regulation
Hyperactivity
- Parents and teachers often report:
o Restless
o Fidgety
o Unable to sit still
- Objective measures of hyperactivity can be measured using an actigraphs (little
accelerometers that register movement in different planes)
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- Motor restlessness is more likely to occur in situations that demand the children to sit
still and regulate their behaviour
Impulsivity
- Parents and teachers often report:
o Difficulty controlling their own behaviour
Ex. child might often act without thinking, interrupts others, cuts in line,
engages in dangerous behaviours, appears careless and irresponsible,
immature and rude
Secondary Features
- Motor Skills
o About half of children diagnosed with ADHD have motor coordination problems
Clumsiness
Delay in Motor Milestones
Walk, ride a bike later
Poor Performance in Sports
Difficulties with Fine Motor Coordination and Timing
o They have particular difficulty in tasks involving complex movements and
sequencing (i.e. dancing)
- Intelligence
o Overall, children do perform worse on intelligence tests (WPPSI, WISC-5)
o May have co-morbid learning difficulties/disorders
o Reduced academic achievement
o 56% need tutoring
o 30% have to repeat a grade
o 30-40% end up in at least 1 special education placement
o 10-35% fail to graduate from high school
- Cognition (Executive Functioning Skills)
o Neuropsychological deficits cluster around executive functioning skills
i.e. inhibition, working memory, sustained attention, etc.
o Executive functioning skills include those involved in goal-directed behaviour and
are involved in planning, organizing and self-regulation
- Adaptive Functioning Skills
o Deficiencies in everyday adaptive functioning skills
i.e. brushing teeth, washing face, getting ready for school
o Deficits are in DOING rather than KNOWING
o Parallel with clumsiness
- Social Behaviour
o Quickly alienates themselves from peers
Worse if the child is also non-compliant and aggressive
o Can correct social behaviours but are disorganized, impulsive, or distracted
during social activities
o May not adequately process social emotional cues
o Overrates peer relationships as positive
- Sleep
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