Positive psychology lecture positive traits, values, and attitudes a. Maslow: self-esteem is the highest of the d motives and leads to growth choices. Rogers: positive regard from others, positive self-regard, relates to authenticity and true self. William james introduced the concept of self-esteem in an 1890 text. Since then, it has been found in 23,000 articles, chapters, and books. According to rodewalt and tregakis, the top 3 covariates in personality and social psychology research are gender, negative affect, and self-esteem. Low self-esteem is a feature associated with 24 dsm disorders. State self-esteem varies from moment to moment, while trait self-esteem is the long-term average level. Self-esteem as an attitude: objective, cognitive evaluation of the self. Self-esteem as an emotion: affection for, or liking or, the self. Can lead to low risk-taking or self-handicapping, which are irrational ways of avoiding failure. Same as emotional definition of self-esteem: affection for, or liking of, the self.