# PSYCH 3CB3 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Likert Scale, Life Satisfaction

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Published on 12 Oct 2016
School
Department
Professor
SEPTEMBER 9 2016
Semantic Differential Technique (Osgood, Suci & Tannenbaum 1957)
Straightforward way of measuring - evaluate attitude object on series of bipolar scale
Ask individual to evaluate X along these 10 dimensions
o Strong -------- Weak
o Active --------- Passive
o Good ---------- Bad
o Fast ------------- Slow
Car companies use this - very interested in how viewers see the construct alongside these
scales
Empirically Determined Scales
Scales set up based on research on individuals and their attitudes
Thurstone's Equal-Appearing Interval Scale (1928)
1. Collect ~100 statements reflecting different opinions or evaluations of attitude
object
"love wounds"
"love if all you need"
"Love scars"
"love makes the world go round"
"too much love will kill you"
"love stinks"
Give these statements and sort them into 11 piles. Pile 1 = most negative
statement and Pile 11 = 11 most positive statement
2. Many judges sort statements into piles, depending on degree of attitude
E.g. Judge to be the most negative about the object place in pile "10"
If you have 50 judges, you will have one rating from each of the judges for each
statement. Then give each statement a rating of its own (pos/neg). Take the
median rating given by the judges for that statement
3. Scale value of item = median of judges assignments
4. Keep equally spaced, low dispersion items (ca same number at each interval)
Want statements where judges agree on the scale to avoid variability in your
questionnaire
Choose a couple statements in the ranking points
5. Participant checks items agreed with; mean scale value is attitude measure
Creating Likert Scale
1. Collect statements reflecting different opinions or evaluations of attitude object.
2. Initial participants indicate degree of agreement with each statement: high scores
positive, low negative.
i. Individual indicates strength of agreement with each of a number of different
attitude statements. High number = positive attitude
ii. Reverse code. High number = positive attitude.
3. Separate highest (most positive) and lowest (most negative) 25% of participants
overall
4. Use items that best discriminate between highest and lowest 25%
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