psych lecture30 part2.rtf

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25 Jan 2013
Department
Professor
A key idea a psychotherapist will introduce into the therapy is the distinction between what is seen and
observed, with what is hidden and unobserved (text, and subtext, the manifest and the latent, the
surface of what you can see vs. underlying meaning)
The analysts confronting the manifest content, the goal of the analyst is to scratch beneath the surface, get
to the latent content that isn’t immediately apparent
One concept is the dream (royal road to unconscious), the stuff of the dream that you will describe to the
analysts, the manifest content, and they will help you figure out the latent part of the dream
Freud regarded human behaviour as multi-layers, multiple potential meanings,
Human isn’t just determined by all the wishes and urges, etc. , its ‘over determined’
The goal is to unravel all of these meanings and bring it to life
Additional metaphor that is helpful to understanding, is to use the idea of a treaty or compromise between
all the competing forces of how we want to behave
Al of the structural components inside of us want to have some say of our behaviour, but they have to
compromise to produce a behaviour, and Freud saw behaviour as a formation of compromised
behaviour, (compromised and resolved)
All behaviours consist of this, some behaviours show this in a unique form
For e.g. slips of the tongue, parapraxies, you mean to say one thing but accidentally you say something
else, this notion of a slip fro Freud were very revealing, the compromised between we want to say,
unconsciously thinking or wanting with the things that were allowed to say(slips of the tongue are
hiccups of the system, where the compromise is more obvious)
Symptoms, heating forces of us which are let out a little at a time through symptoms
Dreams, where we try to in disguised form, to allow ourselves to experience all the wishes and urges we
cant experience in conscious life, the playground we allow ourselves is the dream, it represents a wish
fulfillment, a kind of compromise, meaning of the dream must be disguised so our conscious is not
aware
Surface dream=manifest content based on latent material, somehow we manage to go from this latent
behaviour to this manifest material that we remember in having
How do we go about producing a dream, Freud thought about a process called dream works
All sorts of processes, symbolic representation, things that concern us are abstract, don’t have picture
attached to them, symbolic representation is when we take the abstract wishes and make them
concrete, make them into pictures of things we can see
Once we have an image or picture to stand for things that provoke us or cause anxiety, we can manipulate
the symbol, shape and form it (compression, and substitution or condensation and
Condensation is the omission of compression of multiple latent content into a single manifest image
(disguised because all latent content is put together)
Second idea is the idea of displacement or substitution, shift in emphasis of threatening source, we take
threatening, stressful symbols and replace them with more trivial images that don’t scare or worry us
After condensation and displacement, we then undergo secondary revision, smooth out all the symbolizing
and replacing into a dream narrative
The goal of therapy is to return to the latent, its to unpack the manifest material of life and uncover and
bring out all the latent material
Dream analysis, use the same process with anything
Analytical process is that careful attempt to discern and find the underlying material
The patient comes into the office and says you wont believe the dream I have, and you think that the
analyst will simply tell you what your dream means
What most typically happens is that the analyst asks you to free associate, tell you what comes to mind
when you think about the dream, the patient is encouraged to report a stream of consciousness report,
allow things to come to mind
Therapist then provides an interpretation and explains what problem you may have
The interpretation is offered as an explanation for all of this behaviour
Interpretation may go wrong, not a good time, the patient may not be ready to hear your explanation, or
they can be inaccurate
Presuming that they are interpreting it right, you will bring truly unconscious ideas into the room, and this
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