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McMaster University
Religious Studies
Hannah Holmes

Exile- The deportation of Jewish leadership from Jerusalem to Mesopotamia by the conquering Babylonians in 586 BCE. A rupture of local Israelite political, ritual, and agricultural institutions, it marks the transitions from Israelite religion to Judaism - The exile marks the transition from the national cult of an ancient kingdom to the religious heritage of a widely dispersed people. -The leaders of the Judean society were exiled to Babylonia. These catastrophes mark the disruption of many ancient Israelite institutions. -The heritage was now more than of a subject or minority population than of a national state. Moreover, life was now more urban than agriculturally based laws and rituals needed to be rethought. -The exile gave focus and impetus to a number of significant social and religious changes -At some time in the Exile, the institution known as the synagogue was born. Even after the ruined temple was rebuilt, congregational life gained in emphasis over temple worship. -The post exile community is come to be known as the second commonwealth. Kosher- A designation of food as ritually acceptable, implying that all rabbinic regulations regarding animal slaughter and the like have been observed in its preparation. -Kosher refers to the Jewish dietary laws. -The Jewish dietary laws apply especially in three areas: 1) permitted and prohibited species 2) special requirements for food preparation 3) the combination of various foods in the same meal. -The pig is one the animals that is not kosher, moreover it is not even to be touched or used for any purpose. -All animals and birds that themselves preys on others are excluded, though fish are permitted. -Land animals must have a split hoof and chew the cud; hence beef is a typical Jewish meat dish. -Sea creatures must have both scales and fins; that exclude sharks, all shellfish, all invertebrates, and a variety of lower marine forms. -Kosher slaughtering practice takes account of the prohibition against eating the blood of animals or birds. -Animals must be so slaughtered that they die immediately without feeling pain. -During the festival of Passover, Jews add to the normal preparation regulations the requirement that food be free of yeast or leaven. Moreover, equipment for Passover food must be either new or thoroughly cleaned. -For many people, Jews included, the kosher laws have become a mark of Jewishness par excellence and a principal way of distinguishing Jews from others. -The biblical rules that the slaughter of all kosher animals be done in a humane way had an original application to sacrifice. Midrash- Commentary on scripture. -After the biblical corpus became fixed or closed, it remained the subject of considerable commentary in the early centuries. -The rabbis collected and added to a growing body of Bible interpretation, known as the Midrash -Midrashic commentaries are mostly line-by-line interpretations following the sequence of the biblical text. They may be ordered also by the lectionary cycle (the schedule of biblical readings every week) traditionally used in the synagogue. -The rabbinic writers of midrash took it as their task not to write the Bible – for they considered its text unalterable- but rather to understand the significance of what the text contained. 1 | P a g e Pentateuch- The first five books of the Hebrew Bible, ascribed by tradition to Moses, but regarded by modern scholarship as the result of several centuries of later literary activity. -The observed differences in the name of God suggest that material by one author had been intermixed with that of another. Moreover, differences among literary forms with the text which scholars in modern time have regarded several centuries of later literary activity. Tanakh- The three part Hebrew scriptural collection composed of Torah or law, Nebi’im or prophets and Ketuvim or sacred writings and named as an acronym of these three terms. -In about 90 rabbis at Yavneh placed an end to the fluid situation in Jewish literature by deciding on the status of the third portion of the Hebrew canon, the sacred Writings. To be included in the Writing a book had to be in Hebrew and pre-exilic. -Jews often use the Hebrew acronym of these three sections, Tanakh (T-N-K), to denote this corpus of Hebrew scripture. Ashkenazim- Jews of northern and eastern Europe as distinct from those of the Mediterranean. -One of the two geographically divided Jewish groups of the premodern world. -The Ashkenazic are descended from those who live in central and eastern Europe, away from the Mediterranean. -Ashkenaz was identified with Gernmany and it also includes Poland, Hungary, Romania and Russia. Some settled in France and England over the centuries before their descendants’ migration to North America. -The medieval experience of all Ashkenazim was as a minority under Christian domination that varied from ignorance and insensitivity at best to repression and persecution. -North American Jews are overwhelmingly Ashkenazic in custom and culture. -Jews from the Muslim lands have not been a significant source of migration to North America, but large numbers have migrated to Israel. Bar Mitzvah- Initiation of a thirteen year old boy into adult ritual responsibilities in the synagogue service. Some branches of Judaism parallel it with a Bat Mitzvah for girls. (Arabic for ‘son of the commandments’): -The Bar Mitzvah occurs as part of a congregation’s weekly worship. -In the ceremony, the teenager reads a selection from one of the five books of Moses and from the Prophets, another section of the Bible. -Making the onset of adulthood at 13 is based on an ancient concept of legal majority. It publicly marks that the child has arrived at ritual and moral responsibility. -For the first time, the child reads publicly from the scripture. -Some features of the ceremonies differ significantly. (Services in English, local language or in Hebrew) -The child recites special blessings, in which one can see the community’s values. -The celebrant gives thanks for the scripture of Law and Prophet, which has served as a guide for the people of Israel.---Then Jerusalem----- Then to the dynasty of David- Finally, the Sabbath itself is extolled (praise) for the beauty and quietude it brings. 2 | P a g e Sephardim- The Jews of the pre-modern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern world as contrasted with those of northern and eastern Europe. -The Sephardim are the Jews from around the Mediterranean. -The names of the two groups arise from a reading of the biblical text. -Sephardic Jewish intellectual history is dominated by Spain and Portugal. -In Italy and Turkish Empire, there have been important Sephardic centers; among the Sephardim one can include the Jews from Morocco to Iraq and the Yemen. -Israel today has more nearly equal number of Sephardim and Ashkenazim than do Canada and the United States. - The Sephardic Jews have been overpowered by the Ashkenazic Jews in settlement in the New World. JUDAISM  JUDAISM TIMELINE  c. 1800 bce: traditional date of abraham, legendary first patriarch  c. 1250 bce: traditional date of exodus (moses leading hebrews out of egypt  c. 1000 bce: jerusalem = capital of Israelite kingdom under king david  c. 950 bce: first temple (king solomon)  721 bce: end of northern kingdom, destroyed by assyrians  586-539 bce: first temple destroyed (exile of israelites in babylonia – “babylonian captivity”  JUDAISM TIMELINE (CONTINUED)  515 bce: dedication of second temple  c. 430 bce: first public reading of torah  c. 200 bce: completion of last books of Hebrew Scripture  70 ce: destruction of second temple  HEBREW BIBLE  PENTATEUCH; TANAKH (ACRONYM: T N K)  1. TORAH  GENESIS; EXODUS; LEVITICUS; NUMBERS; DEUTERONOMY  2. PROPHETS (NEVI’IM)  3. WRITINGS (KETUVIM)  SACRED HISTORY  CREATION STORIES  1. “COSMIC”: CREATION OF ORDER OUT OF CHAOS  2. ADAM AND EVE • GARDEN OF EDEN (TREE OF ?)  NOAH (COMMONALITY OF FLOOD MYTH IN MESOPOTAMIA)  SACRED HISTORY (CONTINUED)  ABRAHAM  COVENANT (CIRCUMCISION)  REWARD/PUNISHMENT  ISAAC à HEBREW LINEAGE  ISHMAEL à ARABS  JACOB (“ISRAEL”) à ISRAELITES  SACRED HISTORY (CONTINUED) 3 | P a g e  MOSES AND THE LAW  2 KEY EXPERIENCES • 1. BURNING BUSH • 2. MT. SINAI  EXODUS • TEN COMMANDMENTS • ARK OF THE COVENANT • PROMISED LAND (CANAAN)  TEMPLE JUDAISM  KINGDOM OF JUDAH  SAULà DAVID à SOLOMON  DAVID: CAPITAL = JERUSALEM  SOLOMON: FIRST TEMPLE (~950 BCE)  NORTHERN KINGDOM (ISRAEL)  CONQUERED BY ASSYRIANS (721 BCE)  SOUTHERN KINGDOM (JUDAH)  TEMPLE JUDAISM (CONTINUED)  SOUTHERN KINGDOM: CONQUERED BY BABYLONIANS (TEMPLE DESTROYED IN 586 BCE)  50 YEAR EXILE IN BABYLONIA (586-539 BCE) • BEGIN SUBSTITUTIONS FOR TEMPLE (WRITTEN SCRIPTURE; SYNAGOGUES)  540 BCE: RETURN TO JERUSALEM  2 NDTEMPLE BUILT: 515 BCE  SECOND TEMPLE ERA  MACCABEAN REVOLT (167 BCE)  “HASMONEAN DYNASTY” • SECT FORMATION:  1. SADDUCEES  2. PHARISEES  3. ZEALOTS  4. ESSENES  ROMANS RECLAIM AREA IN 63 BCE  66CE: REVOLT à TEMPLE DESTRUCTION IN 70 CE  RABBINICAL JUDAISM  TEMPLE-BASED RELIGION à COMMUNITY AND TEXT-BASED RELIGION  SURVIVAL = CODIFICATION OF SCRIPTURE (200 CE) AND INTERACTIVE NETWORK OF EXEGESIS  SYNAGOGUE; PHARISEES à RABBIS  REVELATION AND INTERPRETATION  midrash = EXEGESIS  WRITTEN TORAH / ORAL TORAH  200 CE: MISHNAH  MISHNAH + GEMARA (SUPPLEMENTARY INTERPRETATION) = TALMUD  2 VERSIONS OF THE TALMUD 4 | P a g e CHRISTIANITY Glossolalia- Speaking in strange tongues, which is a principal feature of charismatic behavior. -Springing from the revivalist roots of Methodism. An emphasis on feeling intensely the achievement or the gift of holiness, these congregations are often referred to as ‘Holiness’ churches. (Church of Nazarene and the Church of God) -Holiness can bring striking changes in observable behavior. Some roll in the aisles of these meetings (holy rollers) and some speak out ecstatically in an exotic prayer language one has not previously known. This unknown speech is termed Glossolalia or speaking in tongues. -The group interprets such conduct as prompted by the Holy Spirit. -The term ‘charismatic’, from the Greek word for gift, describes such groups. -Protestant congregations that cultivate the practice of speaking in tongues are also termed Pentecostal, recalling the early Church’s Pentecost experience. -Unlike today’s Pentecostal movement, Acts reports speech in exotic tongues that is intelligible rather than mystifying. Passion- The suffering and death of Jesus on the cross. -As the historical moment of profoundest significance for Christians is the suffering and death of Jesus on the cross. -Christians recount certain details of that suffering, termed the Passion. Sacrament- A ritual action seen as signifying divine grace. The most widely accepted as sacraments are baptism and the Eucharist; the Catholic Church has regarded these plus five others as sacraments since the thirteenth century. -Originalth meaning an oath of allegiance came to be applied to a wide range of Christian formal actions. -In the 5 century Augustine used it of formulas such as Lord’s Prayer and the creeds. -In Latin Christianity in the 12 century, as many as 30 sacraments were enumerated. But in the 13 century a list of 7emerged that has remained standard for Catholic tradition: baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, anointing the seriously sick, ordination, and marriage. -Many Protestants pared the list down to baptism and the Eucharist, as the two ritual actions inaugurated by Jesus. Transubstantiation- The Catholic doctrine that the bread and wine of the Eucharist are at the moment of consecration in the service miraculously transformed into the body and blood of Christ. (ON THE FINAL EXAM) -Trent reiterated an understanding of the mass as a sacrifice. Theology held that in the re-enactment of Jesus’ supper with his disciples, the words ‘this is my body’ and ‘this is my blood’ are literally and mysteriously effective. That is, at a certain moment during the service of mass, the wafer and the wine are transformed into the body and the blood of Christ. 5 | P a g e Atonement- Christ’s restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, variously interpreted as divine victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example. -God enters into the world to overcome the sin and death that hold humankind in bondage. By becoming incarnate and suffering, God rescues humanity from the power of the demonic. Indulgences- Releases from specified amounts of time in purgatory, a realm to which in Catholic doctrine the soul proceeds after death for an unspecified period of preparation to enter heaven. Trinity- The conception of God as having three ‘persons’ or manifestations: as father, as son, and as Holy Spirit. The doctrine emerged during the late third century and was adopted after vigorous debate in the fourth. -Christianity has resisted asserting a plurality of distinct gods, but it has wanted to maintain a plurality of divine ‘persons’ or divine manifestations. -The concept of Trinity s not explicitly mentioned in the New Testament. It speaks of the three on separate accounts. th -The Doctrine of Trinity dominated the early 4 century. -The matter was put on stage by a debate between the Arius and Athanasisu: oArius: Proposed that the son of God was not eternal, but was created within time by the father as part of the creation of the world oAthanasisu: Asserted the coeternity and coequality of father and son. oThe debate was won by Athanasisu, however the mattethwas not put to rest. -The Doctrine of Christology was the topic of debate in the 5 , which was based on the incarnation of God in Christ. The three options on this issue were: oTwo Separate persons, one divine and one human. The Nestorians oOne person, with only a divine nature. The Monophysites oOne person, but with both a divine nature and a human nature. The Greek and Latin-speaking churches held this option. CHRISTIANITY  JESUS IN THE GOSPELS  MOSAIC: “COMPOSITE PORTRAIT” OF JESUS  THE TWO COMMANDMENTS  LOVE FOR GOD  LOVE FOR ONE’S NEIGHBOUR  SPIRITUAL VS. POLITICAL KINGDOM  EARLY CHRISTIAN BELIEF AND HISTORY  MISSIONARY COMPONENT  PENTECOST  ALL ROADS LEAD TO PAUL  JEWISH AND GENTILE CHRISTIANITY  CHRIST: AS REDEEMER  THE STRUCTURE OF THE NEW TESTAMENT  PERSPECTIVES ON THE CHRISTIAN BIBLE  INERRANCY  LITERALISM 6 | P a g e  HISTORICAL-CRITICAL  NEW TESTAMENT (CONTINUED)  GOSPELS: Matthew Mark Luke John  the Acts of the Apostles  the Letters of Paul  Romans  1 and 2 Corinthians; Galatians  Ephesians; Philippians; Colossians  1 and 2 Thessalonians  1 and 2 Timothy  Titus; Philemon  Hebrews; James; 1 and 2 Peter  1, 2, and 3 John; Jude; Revelation GOSPELS IN FOCUS  MARK (WINGED LION)  SAVIOUR OF THE GENTILES  65-70 CE  APOCALYPTIC URGENCY  MATTHEW (WINGED ANGEL)  PROMISED MESSIAH OF ISRAEL  75-80 CE  SUPREME TEACHER OF TORAH  GOSPELS IN FOCUS (CONTINUED)  LUKE (WINGED OX) ~85 CE  SAVIOUR OF THE GENTILES  CONCERN FOR POOR, WOMEN, OUTCASTS  “LUKE-ACTS”  CHURCH = CONTINUATION OF LIFE OF JESUS  JOHN (EAGLE) ~90-100 CE  JESUS AS ETERNAL DIVINE SON OF GOD  NOT “SYNOPTIC”  INCARNATION  THE TWO-DOCUMENT THEORY  Q (QUELLE = SOURCE)  NEW TESTAMENT – ACTS, EPISTLES, REVELATION  ACTS  LUKE PART II  EPISTLES (LETTERS)  PAULINE EPISTLES = EARLIEST WRITINGS  REVELATION (100 CE) CONCLUSION: CONSENSUS  1. BIRTH ~ 4 BCE; RAISED IN NAZARETH; BROTHER JAMES PIVOTAL IN EARLY CHURC (50’S AND 60’S CE)  2. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS  3. BAPTIST MESSAGE (OVERLAPPING WITH JOHN’S?)  4. FOLLOWERS: FISHERMEN, WOMEN, FARMERS 7 | P a g e  5. PUBLIC MINISTRY (3 YEARS)  CONSENSUS CONTINUED  6. MINISTRY AROUSES SUSPICION  7. FULFILLMENT OF MESSIANIC PROPHECY AND CONFRONTATION AT TEMPLE  8. LAST SUPPER; ARREST, CHARGED WITH TREASON  9. CRUCIFIXION (~30-33 CE); “KINGOF THE JEWS”  EARLY FORMATION OF CHRISTIANITY  ISRAEL à MEDITERRANEAN à ROMAN EMPIRE  ESTABLISHMENT OF BISHOPS  MAJOR BISHOPS: ROME; ANTIOCH (SYRIA); ALEXANDRIA (EGYPT)  CENTRALIZED AUTHORITY (BISHOP OF ROME)  EASTERN ORTHODOX CHURCH  (RUSSIA, BULGARIA, UKRAINE, ROMANIA, GREECE)  CONSTANTINOPLE (CENTRE OF EASTERN EMPIRE UNTIL 1453)  THEOLOGICAL DIVISIONS  “filioque” – FROM THE SON  ISSUES OF AUTHORITY  “ORTHODOX” – PRESERVE SPIRIT OF EARLY CHRISTIANITY  MYSTICAL EMPHASIS  ICONS  MYSTICISM IN THE MIDDLE AGES  CHRISTIAN ROOTS OF “MYSTICISM”  INEFFABILITY (APOPHASIS)  EXPERIENCE (AND IMMANENCE)  MYSTICISM OF THE IMAGE  ONTOLOGY (NEO-PLATONISM)  VIA NEGATIVA  MEISTER ECKHART (1260-1328)  MAGISTERIAL REFORMATION  LUTHER (1483-1546)  FREEDOM IN DEVOTION  MEDIATION  SOCIAL, ECONOMIC, POLITICAL CONTEXT  “95 THESES” – 1517  “JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH ALONE”  PRIEST-CHURCH à FAMILY  MAGISTERIAL REFORMATION  JOHN CALVIN (1509-1564)  LUTHERANISM à CALVINISM  DISCIPLINE  PREDESTINATION  DIVINE AND NATURAL LAW  RADICAL REFORMATION (ANABAPTISM)  “MUNZTER IN MUNSTER”  THE LIMITS OF REFORM  “REBAPTISERS” 8 | P a g e  CATHOLICISM, THE COUNTER REFORMATION, AND REACTIONS TO MODERNITY  MONOLITHIC VIEW à THE EXISTENCE OF DIVERSITY  TRENT  SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES ISLAM Dhikr- ‘Remembering’ God’s name. In group devotional exercises, Sufi’s repeat it in rhythmic chant. The devotees often dance in a circle. - the most characteristic Sufi practice. -The ritual may be public or private. -The congregational dhikr ritual is usually held before the dawn or evening prayers. -It consists of the repetition of the name of God (Allah) or the Shahadah (there is no god, except God) -It is often accompanied by special bodily movement and in some Sufi orders, by elaborate breathing techniques. -The performance often distinguishes the various Sufi orders from one another. -Some intended to stir the devotee into a state of frenzy and some is silent offered an inward prayer of heart. -Progression from audible remembrance of the tongue to the silent remembrance of the heart and finally to the recollection of the innermost being of the pious Sufi. Hadith- Texts containing traditional reports of Muhammad’s words and example, taken by Muslims as a foundation for conduct and doctrine. A hadith is an individual unit of the literature, and the Hadith is the literature considered as a corpus. -It is often called ‘tradition’ in English, in a quite specific sense. -Islamic ‘tradition’ (Prophetic Tradition) is the body of sayings traced to the prophet Muhammad through chains of oral transmissions. -It is the most important of the three elements of sunnah, (sunnah of action, sunnah of consent and sunnah of speech) because it directly expresses the Prophet’s opinions or judgements regarding the community’s practice. It has also
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