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Lecture 13

Lecture 13 Nonviolence in Islam Ot 28.docx

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Religious Studies
Ann Pearson

Nonviolence in Islam/ Qur’an Oct. 28/13 -sources Quote, from the Hadith • “Shall I not tell you what is better than prayers and fasting and giving alms to the poor? It is making peace between one another; enmity and malice destroy all virtues.” Muslim peace activists Muslim Peace Fellowship   Mubarak Awad and Mustafa Berghouti (both Palestinian)  “If I could know that my daughters were the last sacrifice on the road to peace between Palestinians and Israelis, then I would accept their loss.” ~ Abuelaish Prophet Muhammad (570-632)  God is the focus of piety and authority in Islam,  but the prophet Muhammad’s (“the praised one”) life story is important as a model for the teachings of the Qur’an.  Raised by family of one of his uncles  No formal education  Married to Khadija (15 yrs his senior); 6 children  At age 40, encounter with the angel Jibril (Life-story)  “Proclaim! (Or Read!)  In the name of thy Lord and Cherisher;  Who created – created man out of a clot of blood:  Proclaim! And thy Lord is most bountiful –  He who taught (the use of) the Pen –  Taught man that which he knew not.” [Qur’an]  Khadija encourages him to take the revelations seriously  His family became the first “Muslims” [Life story]  Muhammad was ridiculed and stoned by the Qurayshites, the aristocrats of Muhammad’s tribe who operated the Ka’bah as a pilgrimage centre  Move from Mecca to Medina in 622 CE referred to as the hijrah (“migration”), first year of the Muslim calendar [AH]; marked the change from persecution to acceptance of the prophet’s message  In Medina, Muhammad acted as arbiter of disputes; negotiator Opening verse of the Qur’an: Al-Fatiha “the opening”  In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Ever Merciful:  All Praise to Allah, Lord/Sustainer of the universe  The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful  Sovereign of the Day of Judgment  You alone we worship, and You alone we ask for help  Guide us to the true path  The path of those on whom You have bestowed your favor, not of those who have earned Your anger, nor of those who go astray. Mission of Islam  New ideal: a global family under the one God  In his “Farewell Sermon,” Muhammad stated, “You must know that a Muslim is the brother of a Muslim and the Muslims are one brotherhood.”  The Qur’an suggests the mission of Islam is to reform society, to actively combat oppression and corruption, “inviting to all that is good, enjoining what is right, and forbidding all that is wrong”  create a just moral order in the world as an embodiment of God’s commandments ‘No compulsion in religion’  2:256 There is no compulsion in religion, for the right way is clearly from the wrong way. Whoever therefore rejects the forces of evil and believes in God, he has taken hold of a support most unfailing, which shall never give way, for God is All Hearing and Knowing.  16:82 But if they turn away from you, (O Prophet remember that) your only duty is a clear delivery of the Message (entrusted to you). Jihad (“striving”)  presence of injustice is a major obstacle to creating peace  establishment of justice requires continual effort, and is part of the consideration of jihad  Jihad is divided into al-jihad al-akbar – the “Greater Struggle”, the inward effort of confronting our baser instincts, our egotism o Our inclinations that lead to sensual temptations  And al-jihad al asghar – the “Lesser Struggle”, the outward effort of confronting social injustice and defending the Faith. [Jihad, cont.]  The only combat sanctioned in the Qur’an is defensive war. “Whoso commits aggression against you, do you commit aggression against him like he has committed against you; and fear you God, and know that God is with the God-fearing” (2:190-91).  Muhammad had urged the Muslims to fight for the cause of God – to defend it from those who would seek to undermine it, but  The use of force should be the last resort (4:90) o Have to take into account all of the other teachings that are in the Qur’an [Jihad] -Power/authority was left for the 4 Khalif’s (this is what Sunni’s believe, but Shia’s don’t believe in that authority of the Khalif’s)  What constitutes defense?  Shari’a does not allow jihad to be used arbitrarily  Distinction made b/w Dar-al-Islam (place of Islam) vs. dhar-al-harb (place of war)  principles re war/violence & peace in the Qur’an:  Human life is sacred. (6:152) “Slay not the life that God has made sacred.”  “If anyone takes a life, it is as though he slays all mankind. And if anyone saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people.” (5:35)  “Seek and secure human welfare, promote justice and peace” (4:114)  “Come to common ground” with all people, wherever and whenever possible. (3:64]  “The believers are but a single Brotherhood: so make peace and reconciliation between your two (contending) brothers; and fear Allah, that ye may receive mercy.” [49:10] (Principles, cont.)  Normal relations between peoples, nations and states should be peaceful. “O mankind, We have created you male and female, and appointed you races and tribes, that you may know one anothe
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